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Income Inequality And Poverty Essay Conclusion

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Latin America Poverty And Inequality Essay Research

Poverty and Inequality

This avalanche of negative points summarizes problems that have persisted in Latin American countries for decades. In addition, as usual, the group in these countries to pay the highest price is the poor. However, what factors have been the main causes of persistent high levels of poverty, and high-income differentials in Latin American countries? Furthermore, just how serious is the situation of the poor today in each individual Central and South American country? In essence, the major factors working against decreasing the existent levels of poverty, and bettering the income position of the poor in relations to the rich are 1.) The inherited complex political structure 2.) The adopting of protectionism policies in favor of the elite, and 3.) The increases in foreign dependency that these countries both possess and have, regarding the last factor, engaged in.

The political arena of Latin American countries has been one of constant government instability, great tension, and social chaos. In fact, countries such as Nicaragua where revolutions took place and countries such as Chile, Cuba, and Panama where dictatorships persisted had only considerable increases in economic growth until the early 90’s, which signaled the end of revolutions and dictatorships. For instance, Nicaragua went from a –2.0% during the 1980’s to a positive 0.5% annual economic growth in the early 90’s, Chile from 4.1% to a substantial 7.5%, and Panama from a 0.3% to a superb 7.0%. However, why have poverty levels in these countries persisted when economic growth took place for the late 80’s early 90’s period? The main cause lies within a political structure where a minor group of privileged leaders govern a country with a deeply rooted system of corruption and of immense abuses of power. In fact, most of the movements intervening to overthrow an existing corrupted government, specifically the case of Central America, brought with them similar ideals to that of the previous rulers. Ideals that set out to benefit the leaders in power and the rich aristocrat’s “the elite” that had supported the new authoritarian government. As a result, the solution presented by new leaders to a recurring political problem consisted in a similar camouflaged form of corruption that had as main objective the welfare of a few privileged citizens.

According to the modernization theory, one of the positive outcomes of industrialization, and economic growth is an increase in the number of educated people in the population. Therefore, as the number of literate citizens within the population increases, governments begin to experience a great deal of pressure from a more participant educated working class, demanding that governments follow more democratic economic policies fair to all social groups. However, the modernization theory did not prove to be 100% true in Latin America. Despite a better educated population share in most Latin countries, even in 1994 we find that largely this outdated system of abuses is still alive and functioning with some of the old criteria’s. This conclusion derives from the fact that on average in 1994 most Latin American countries’ gini-ratio oscillated between the incredibly high figures of 50 and 55. Supported by both a continuing paternalism, and the government’s fidelity to the welfare of the “elite”, the economic policies adopted by Latin American leaders have made no, or very little, attempt to share any economic growth with the helpless poor.

For the assessment of economic growth and inequality in Latin American countries, let me analyze the changes in both the agriculture and industrial sector by country, and compare the results obtained to the levels of inequality during the 1980’s and early 90’s. From the 1996 World Development Report we observe that all throughout the 1980’s and early 90’s 7 countries transferred human capital from the agriculture to the industrial sector, 3 decreased human capital from agriculture while keeping that of industry constant, and 8 decreased human capital in both the agriculture and industrial sector. Statistically speaking, 38% of Latin American countries were able to supply better paying jobs by transferring labor from agriculture to industry, 18% experienced decreases of employment in the agriculture sector and no decreases or increases in industry, and 44% had employment downfalls in both agriculture and industry. However, by analyzing the gini-index within each Latin American country, I find that even those countries within the 38% group, that had labor increases in industry, where prior-agricultural employees began to receive better salaries, still had ski-rocket inequality figures. Within this group we find, Costa Rica with a gini-ratio of 46.1, Nicaragua of 50.3, Dominican Republic of 50.5, Colombia of 51.3, Honduras of 52.7, Paraguay not available, and El Salvador not available. Moreover, those countries suffering both reductions in either only agriculture or in both agriculture and industry had considerably elevated gini-ratios. For example, Bolivia, Peru, and Chile belonging to the 18% group show the following results, 42.0, 44.9, and last Chile with 56.5. Consequently, the unemployed numbers in total population rose, and even worst, given that no government followed income redistribution policies, the existent wide gap between the poor and the rich stretched even more. And last, the 44% worst group in Latin American –Guatemala, Ecuador, Panama, Venezuela, Brazil, Mexico, Uruguay, and Argentina– also present gini ratio’s ranging between a minimum of 46.6 in Ecuador and a high of 63.4 in Brazil. Similar negative effects to those incurred by the 18% group, the 44% worst group showed high levels of inequality, and given the considerable increases in unemployment, most likely worst cases of poverty than the other Latin American groups.

As a conclusion, I find that in the two extremes 1. ) Where economic growth took place, for instance Costa Rica’s economic growth of 3.0% annually during the 80’s and 5.6% in the early 90’s, and 2.) Where economic growth was absent, as was the case for Brazil’s critical economic decreases during the 80’s and the early 90’s, from 2.7% annually to 2.2% the levels of income inequality were considerably high. Therefore, for Latin American countries economic growth did not signal decreases in income inequality. As the evidence shows, up to 1996, Latin American leaders implemented policies that lead to economic growth, but hesitated to adopt reforms that would improve the equality of income between the rich and the poor. Therefore, any positive or negative internal or external factor influencing pressure on a country’s economic growth meant one of two things for the Latin American poor. A boost in economic growth signaling that the poor had become slightly less poor with respects to themselves but not the rich, assuming labor transfers from agriculture to industrial. Or, on the other hand, a declining growth emphasized higher unemployment, assuming layoffs in either agriculture or industry, or in both, and consequently, reaching worst poverty levels than before.

During the 1970’s, one principal external factor –international loans or investments– played a significant role in the economic growth of these less developed countries. However, what negative side effects emerged from foreign investment in Central and South America? Many social analysts in Latin America and the United States insist that economic dependence had important political implications for Latin America. Third World elites, backed by the economic and military power of the core nations, mainly the United States, maintained a political system that benefited the few at the expense of the majority. Large amount of the capital in-flows destined to stimulate industrial growth, improve the country’s infrastructure, offer better healthcare services, build better education institutions, and so on, were mismanaged by a small elite and corrupt group of people. Little, or at times no, investments were made in the area of industrial goods, technological innovation, or in important industries, for instance electronics, to be able to enter competitively in the global market. Furthermore, with the economic depression of the 1980’s facing the United States, dependent countries, in this case Latin American ones ended up importing the inflation of the United States.

In fact, in 1994, Latin American countries had an external debt equivalent to a considerable amount of their Gross National Product (GNP). For instance, Costa Rica’s 1996 debt was 59.7% of the country’s GNP, Honduras 70+%, Bolivia’s 89.4%, Panama’s 107%, and Nicaragua’s an amazing 800% of GNP. The external debt of the remaining countries oscillated between 30 – 45 % of their gross national product. Once again the group paying for this exorbitant debt is the poor through higher inflation, lower salaries, higher taxes, less medical benefits, unfinished community aided programs and so on. Moreover, the effects of dependency will be felt for quite some time, unless these loan are forgotten or forgiven by US banks. Up to now a pessimistic view has persisted through all issues covered. However comparing the actual situation today in Latin America with that of three decades ago, we find that there is more political stability, better healthcare services, higher levels of adult literacy –around 65% compared to yesterday’s 20 – 25%.

The revolutionary wars fought in El Salvador, Nicaragua and Guatemala have ceased, and the days of dictators, except for that of Fidel Castro’s government, have come to an end. Transitions being made from authoritarian to more democratic capitalistic governments are preliminary steps taken to the abolishment of the old-system of values. These steps are beginning to undermine the power of the privileged groups. Consequently, I will find the strengthening of the political voice of the poor working class, which will place in power leaders looking after the benefits of all and not a few social groups. Nevertheless, an economic depression as the ones of the 80’s suffered by these countries in the future can recall the authoritarian and self-interested groups back into power.

In conclusion, although most Latin American countries have achieved significant economic growth during the 80’s and early 90’s, the economic situation of most Central and South American low-income poor class has either stayed the same or even worsened through time. These are the causes of a system constituted of corrupt leaders, which have seemed only to exploit the country’s economic resources. Whether the situation of the poor will change in a positive way in the 21st Century will depend on the openness and commitment made by the citizens in adopting a more

Democratic political government.

New York: Oxford University Press, 1972. Dasgupta, Partha. An inquiry into Well-Being and Destitution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. World Bank, Annual Report 1996. Washington, D.C. edited by Peter C. Muncie, Office of the Publisher, The World Bank Group. World Bank, From Plan to Market 1996. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc.

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Poverty and Inequality - Poverty and inequality exist in every developed culture and often are only patched in order for society to continue upwardly. Poverty and inequality in the United States exists for many reasons; reasons that very from the prospective lens. Interpretive theories in particular ask us to question our reality and its constructs. Interpretive theories require us to looks at the world as a social realm, one that we created and constantly change. Interpretive theories study the relationship between power and the construction of social roles as well as the invisible collection of patterns and habits that make up domination, (Delgado & Stefanic, 2001). [tags: Sociology, Critical Race Theory ]

1851 words
(5.3 pages)

Inequality in Australia - Over the last two decades the Australian population has faced a number of economic instabilities that has seen the gap between the ‘haves’ and ‘have nots’ increase. To determine who the ‘haves’ and ‘have nots’ are an in-depth investigation will be performed examining the circumstances under which the gap can be manipulated. The economic wellbeing of individuals is largely determined by their command over economic resources (ABS, 2009). The wellbeing of individuals who are classified as ‘haves’ are usually people who are asset rich, contain bonds, shares and are fairly affluent. [tags: International Government ]
. 3 Works Cited

1251 words
(3.6 pages)

Social Justice is NOT Achieved by Income Redistribution - The term “social justice” has existed since the 1840s and has continued to transform over the years. “Global justice” is simply another in a long line of interchangeable prefixes such as “national justice”, “economic justice” etc that precede the word justice. A plethora of policies are advocated under the name of “global justice”. This paper will consider the more popular proposal of income redistribution and consider its intellectual foundation and how it relates to justice, as well as its real world implications. [tags: Global Justice, Economic Justice]

2017 words
(5.8 pages)

Income Discrepancy as a Driving Factor for Divorce - The majority of the people on this earth choose to believe once they find their soul mate, they will be able to share a long and happy marriage, “until death do [they] part.” This belief amounts to only a simple myth, as more and more couples file for divorce each year. It is ironic how a man can find the love of his life, his source of the ultimate currency, but is forced to a dead end due to external struggles. In Happier, author Ben-Shahar discusses “the mistaken notion that finding love guarantees eternal bliss leads partners to neglect the journey – the day-to-day issues, activities, and events that shape the relationship” (Ben-Shahar, 121). [tags: Family Psychology ]
. 5 Works Cited

1162 words
(3.3 pages)

Social Conflict and Inequality - Social Conflict and Inequality The social conflict paradigm is a theory based on society being a complex system characterized by inequality and conflict that generate social change. Personal life experiences dictate me to believe this theory is true. Discussion of the theory in question and how it pertains to myself will be covered in the paper. Social conflict can be seen all over the world we live in: in sports, politics and normal social engagements. The main point I have experienced with this theory would be the fact that I don’t come from a rich, powerful, and prestigious family, which in turn limits my chances of being successful. [tags: Philosophy Economics Inequality Essays]

1265 words
(3.6 pages)

Inequality in the European Union (EU) - Cumulative European Union (EU) enlargements to include relatively less developed countries such as Bulgaria and Romania, along with the possibility of future EU status being granted to Turkey and Albania (EC, 2011), raises further questions about inequality in the European Union. The global recession has bought the issue of labour market models and resulting inequities back into the forefront political discourse, as government cutbacks necessitate the reappraisal of welfare states and labour market policy. [tags: European Union Essays]
. 24 Works Cited

1956 words
(5.6 pages)

Gender Relations and Inequality in India - Gender relations and inequality is experienced through lack of educational matters and unfair treatment of women and children, thus in many cases forcing women to run households, while the men are away at work in various seasonal migration jobs at unviable wages. As defined in a classic article, income inequality is “the distribution of total income amongst the represented population” (Gehring13). In outlined studies; evidence can conclude that poor gender relations in fact can be convoluted into other issues such as overpopulation, child malnourishment, low levels of GDP, and GNI. [tags: female feticide, unfair treatment of women]
. 9 Works Cited

2328 words
(6.7 pages)

Interpretation of the Reading Savage Inequality - This essay explores personal interpretation of the reading “Savage Inequality” encompassing its distasteful quality and sociological perspectives while identifying my individual experience through commonality. The opening statement in the article Savage Inequalities referenced obvious signs of social inequalities losing its energy as society now view its origin as an everyday norm. Explaining it away as a reflection of the individual’s character is a faultless example of societies reacting to their definition of the situation relatively than the objective situation itself, as Symbolic Interactionism advocates. [tags: poverty, education, social inequalities]
. 1 Works Cited

1067 words
(3 pages)

Inequality Affecting the Canadian Public - Inequality in Canada is not as prominent as many other places around the world, although it does remain in certain segments of Canada. There are many forms of inequality in Canada and internationally, although this papers main focus is going to be the inequality of wealth. According to Steven Kerstetter “Canadians may view their country as a land of opportunity, but it is also a land of deep and abiding inequality in the distribution of personal wealth” (Kerstetter 2002). The “gaps between the rich and poor remain evident in Canadian statistics” (Kerstetter 2002), Canadians have always kept financial security as an essential element of life and have tried to obtain and sustain it within thei. [tags: Canadian Government ]
. 3 Works Cited

1226 words
(3.5 pages)

Educational Inequality Among the Poor - Among the poor access to educational programs are social inequality and racial discrimination. Children cannot help or decide if they come from a poor family or a different ethnic background. It should not matter if kids cannot afford an education like the upper class because if the less fortunate kids aim and strive for an education they ought to have a chance to earn one and have an equal education just like the rich children. Many aspects contribute to the “Access to high quality early childhood education and care is the first step in breaking the cycle of [this] disadvantage and will make a difference in children’s development and future learning”. [tags: racial discrimination, future generations]
. 1 Works Cited

1061 words
(3 pages)

American Inequality - Inequality exists around us. One of the inequalities is the income received by a person or member of a family. This income includes wages, salaries, pensions, and interest derived from assets. Income inequality refers to the various income within a given population. This inequality is especially high in the United States. This inequality stems from the changes within the U.S. economic structure coupled with the changes in our government policy. At least 80% of all citizens work in a service related job. [tags: Sociology ]
. 3 Works Cited

913 words
(2.6 pages)

China’s Rising Inequality - “While there is significant variation across regions, within the cities and within the rural areas, the most significant inequality is between the urban and the rural” (Saich, 2011:316). Introduction - Inequality in China China, like anywhere else in the world, is not immune to the problems of inequality. Even though China has seen great economic growth over the past 20 years, the level of inequality has risen. The hukou system can be seen as a factor in creating inequality between citizens in China. [tags: Hukou System, Rural, Urban Populations]
. 17 Works Cited

2192 words
(6.3 pages)

Globalization Creates Inequality - Globalization is a complex phenomenon which has positive and negative implications. In one of the report by World Commission on the Social Dimension of Globalization, globalization is explained as “there is no point to globalization that reduces the price of a child’s shoes, but costs the father his job”. The chief characteristics of globalisation as explained by World Commission on the Social Dimension of Globalization are international trade, foreign direct investment, financial flows, technology and policy environment. [tags: International Free Trade, Global Commerce]

1763 words
(5 pages)

Inequality: Modern Oppression in the United States - One of the first things students are told when studying creative writing is to “write what you know.” The phrase has been repeated countless times by countless teachers and professors, yet what does writing what you know truly entail. Octavia Estelle Butler was born in Pasadena, California in 1947. Her father, a shoemaker, died while she was only a baby leaving her to be raised by her mother and grandmother. Her family wasn’t well off financially and she observed her mother, who was a housemaid, work extremely hard to barely keep the household afloat. [tags: Civil Rights]
. 7 Works Cited

2209 words
(6.3 pages)

Inequality in America - Inequality in America I believe that there is too much wealth and income inequality in the United States today. The upper classes have most of the power in the nation and use their influence and wealth to convert the United States income into benefiting their well being and financial stability. In the last fifteen years, the income of the upper classes has risen while the income of the lower classes has generally lowered, further showing the inequality that exists in our nation. It is usually difficult for the lower classes to achieve financial success because a high income job requires good education which the lower classes lacks because they cannot afford it. [tags: Papers]

562 words
(1.6 pages)

Income Distribution and Economic Growth in LDC's - Income Distribution and Economic Growth in LDC's INTRODUCTION In recent years, one of the major concerns of economic development is the study of poverty, the income distribution and growth in the less developed countries (LDC’s) or Third World countries. Economists from all over the world have been doing researches and studies on how to induce a growth in those underdeveloped countries. However, countries differentiate in historical backgrounds, cultural believes and natural resources. As a result, the government would implement different strategies to attain a much fairer distribution of income among the society. [tags: essays papers]
. 7 Works Cited

1663 words
(4.8 pages)

Government Redistribution of Income is Theft - If a person obtains something fairly, the government should not take it away from them. The government would be stealing if they were to take from people when the goods were obtained fairly. If the person had stolen something then it would be fine for the government to take it back and return it to the original and proper owner. Nozick feels that inequality is fine as long as the inequality was fairly made. If one person works to become rich and another person does not work, Nozick sees it as just for one to be rich and the other to be poor. [tags: politics, inequalities]
. 2 Works Cited

862 words
(2.5 pages)

Capitalism on Wages and Income - Introduction Capitalism is an economic system in which industry, trade and factor and means of production are controlled by private investors or owners with an aim of making profit in a market economy. It affects the rate of capital accumulation, labor wage and the control of competitive market. This usually affects the economy of different societies since the government has no control over the economy. The forces of capitalism greatly affect the societies in that the poor continues to be poorer while the reach society continues to accumulate wealthy and become richer. [tags: economic system, profit, economy, exploitation]
. 6 Works Cited

1440 words
(4.1 pages)

Gap of Inequality Between Social Classes in the United States - In the article “Confronting Inequality”, Paul Krugman argues that the gap of inequality between social classes in the United States is growing because of self- interest. He cites a “movement conservative”, Irving Kristol, who claims income inequality is not important because there is social equality. Krugman uses Kristol’s statement as a starting position to state his own. Krugman describes the claim as being a “fantasy world” and not the “real America we live in” (Krugman 246). I agree with his statement, many people were not aware of this issue five years ago, the fact that the upper class is gaining power. [tags: Sociology]

755 words
(2.2 pages)

Rise of Inequality in Society - Rise of Inequality in Society In "Some Principles of Stratification", Davis and More define the functional theory of stratification as the notion that societies need inequality in order to fill the important occupations wanted by society. The best people need motivation to take the most important jobs, and that motivation comes in the form of rewards, usually a higher income. However, this theory does not explain why inequality in the United States has been on the rise. In William Wilson's The Truly Disadvantaged, Frank Levy explains that the increasing inequality is a result of money-making power shifting from the average worker to the shareholders. [tags: Papers]

409 words
(1.2 pages)

Inequality in America - In American society, the excellence of individuals has always been noted. Sometimes the hard work put forth are for intellectual excellence, global support, and other times for the enjoyment of one’s character and ambitions. Many of these recognitions result in a large sum of wealth, but sometimes the achievements may only result in being noticed and resented from others. Due to social differences in America and negative outlooks of other people, many innovators and ambitions have been put down and belittled because of a lack of equality within both the citizen’s views and the government’s regulations. [tags: history, minorities, civil rights]
. 11 Works Cited

1908 words
(5.5 pages)

Affirmative Action: A Means to End Inequality - Affirmative Action: A Means to End Inequality Throughout the United States, many types of inequality can be identified. What exactly does this statement mean. First, defining inequality would help one best approach this matter. The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines inequality as “the quality of being unequal or uneven” through” a lack of evenness b: social disparity c: disparity of distribution or opportunity d: the condition of being variable” (Merriam Webster). Now the question is clearer, as identifying types of inequality is equivalent to recognizing the different groups that exist within the boundaries of the U.S. [tags: Equality Rights Minorities Papers]
. 32 Works Cited

4396 words
(12.6 pages)

Affordable Housing Crisis - Affordable housing in the United States describes sheltering units with well-adjusted housing costs for those living on an average, median income. The phrase usually implies to applied rental or purchaser housing within the financial means of lower-income ranges specific to the demographics of any given area. However, affordable housing does not include those living in social housing owned by government and non-profit organizations. More specifically, the targeted range for housing affordability sets below 30 percent of a household's annual income, including all applicable taxes, utility costs and home owners insurance rates. [tags: Income, Housing]

1080 words
(3.1 pages)

Understand Recessions and Recoveries - Recessions and recoveries throughout the years seem harder to comprehend each time. This is because of the complex issues that must be resolved during them. The issue no longer just lies with unemployment. One must keep in mind, housing prices, taxes, demographic issues, inequality ratios and the reason for unemployment. A fix all policy is not a possibility with this recession and recovery. As we continue throughout this recovery and continue to make resolutions we must understand what the root causes are and how to avoid them in the future. [tags: unemployment, inequality]
. 5 Works Cited

1377 words
(3.9 pages)

Sklar and the Economist: Inequality in America - America was once known as the land of opportunity. However, that is no longer the case. Americans are still suffering from a depression that began three years ago in 2008. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, in 2007, the United States unemployment rates were 4.6 percent. In 2009, one year after the depression began, the unemployment rate rose to 7.6 percent. Millions of Americans are living in poverty, unable to afford the basic necessities. On the other hand, there is a minuscule percent of the population that are billionaires. [tags: Economics]
. 2 Works Cited

1700 words
(4.9 pages)

Gender Inequality in the Workplace - Women have experienced a historic situation of inequality in the social as well as professional aspects. Women were normally the ones that would take care of children, do the chores in the house, and in rural areas; they would work in the field with the rest of the family. However, today’s women have become more self-sufficient and independent from the predominant male figure within every historical family. Gender inequality in the workplace is becoming less common; yet, gender is a factor that affects men and women. [tags: Gender Studies, social issues, equal rights]
. 9 Works Cited

1259 words
(3.6 pages)

Gender Inequality Within The U.S. - The USA has a long history of bestowing freedom, choice and equal rights upon its citizens, but even though the US government no longer discriminates against race or nationality, gender is still an issue. Women’s rights have come a long way since August 26th 1920 - The date in which The 19th Amendment to the Constitution was signed into law, granting women the right to vote, but the fight is not over yet. Republican politicians like Rick Santorum and Rick Perry along with right-wing fanatics like Rush Limbaugh and fundamentalist religious groups want to profoundly change the rights of women in America. [tags: Gender Issues]
. 8 Works Cited

1350 words
(3.9 pages)

Inequality and Coalitions Size - The interrelations of social segregation and Inequality have been largely studied by several authors (Fernández y Rogerson, 1996 y 1997; Bénabou 1996a y 1996b; Gravel y Thoron, 2007; Durlauf, 1996). Nevertheless, the majority of these studies have concentrated in demonstrating the possibility of a segregated equilibrium. This last is understood as the formation of consecutive clubs, ordered in accordance with a variable that represents the social position of the economic agents. In the majority of the studies, this variable is the wealth of the persons or his human capital. [tags: American History, Revenues]

732 words
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Inequality Constructed Through Family - The image of Canadian families and their relationships constructed within their household’s marks a noticeable change. Both Meg Luxton and Sedef Arat-Koc represent the different positions that individuals are placed due to the balance of work and family. It is a reflection of how power is maintained within the household, and how decisions are being made. Meg Luxton’s reading Wives and Husbands, and Family Coping Strategies, raises the complexity of family life due to gender inequality. In, Family Coping Strategies women struggle with balancing work and domestic labour. [tags: Canadian Families, Relationships]
. 3 Works Cited

1614 words
(4.6 pages)

Inequality: Pretense or Presence? - Inequality: Pretense or Presence. In the United States today, we live in a society that works under the façade of seeming equal, of appearing, outwardly at least, free of discrimination and applying equal opportunities to the rights, liberties, and freedoms to all its citizens. However, that’s just it: An external façade. Yes, beneath the gleaming faux-marble exteriors of newly gentrified urban areas, and even within the corporate infrastructures supposedly promoting hiring equity, something is rotting. [tags: Social Issues]

2049 words
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Social Problems Paper: Inequality - Inequality is a global complication that creates many public obstacles to relieve the destruction of despair and violence. Conflict can ensue as a result of people feeling disadvantaged to others through culture, area of residence, wealth, (Giesen & Nobre, 2010) and the need to experience social mobility to a higher class of prosperity. (Tepperman & Curtis, 2011, p. 33). This can relate to Karl Marx’s proposed Conflict Theory as the working class, known as the proletariat, constantly strive to work extremely hard, in hope for the opportunity to become the owners of production, the bourgeoisie (Tepperman & Curtis, 2011, p. [tags: Financial Gain, Energy Development]
. 16 Works Cited

2038 words
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Racial Inequality in America - In today’s world, the American still has barriers to overcome in the matter of racial equality. Whether it is being passed over for a promotion at the job or being underpaid, some people have to deal with unfair practice that would prevent someone of color or the opposite sex from having equal opportunity at the job. In 2004, Dukes vs. Wal-Mart Stores Incorporation was a civil rights class-action suite that ruled in favor of the women who worked and did not received promotions, pay and certain job assignments. [tags: racism, discrimination, african american studies]
. 4 Works Cited

872 words
(2.5 pages)

Social Inequality of Health - The United States reportedly spends over $8,000 per person on healthcare annually. This amount is two-and-a-half times greater than any other developed country in the world (Kane, 2012). However, this is not reflected statistically in the morbidity and mortality rates of its citizens. Many may ask why and what are we missing. To answer these questions, one may need to look no further than their own town and community. In 2013, the Center for Disease Control (CDC) reported health disparities as a causative factor for the unchanging morbidity and mortality rates in the United States. [tags: social issues, social determinants]
. 13 Works Cited

1439 words
(4.1 pages)

Inequality Remains in America -. With convicts such as Al Capone in control, the income distribution would become an imbalance and only go towards a specific group of individuals of his own choosing. Much like Al Capone, the protagonist in F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby, Gatsby runs an underground bootlegging business in order to rise up socio-economically. Taken under Dan Cody’s wing, Gatsby is inspired to take on illegal businesses in order to earn a colossal amount of money and throw ostentatious parties in hopes of gaining the attention of his former love, Daisy Buchanan. [tags: Equality, Poor]
. 5 Works Cited

1328 words
(3.8 pages)

The Minimum Wage Debate - The minimum wage debate has recently made a large comeback in United States politics. Contemporary studies show over 3.8 million Americans are paid at or below minimum wage (Dickinson 33). Many have looked skeptically back on past wage systems and have questioned wage’s relationship to current market inflation. In response to this inquiry, a large majority of the general population, relatively unrelated to their degree of income, support legislation to increase the minimum. However, the issue has split into a bipartisan debate in Washington. [tags: income equality, low-income, tax credit]
. 5 Works Cited

876 words
(2.5 pages)

Inequality in the Classroom - The issue of inequality seems to be evident in our classrooms nowadays. It is said that although everyone, regardless of race or religion, have been given equal oppurtunities, the outcome is still imbalanced. Researchers say that this could be due to either biological destiny (/innate intelligence superiority) or cultural depravation (/cultural superiority). This essay will reflect my views on innate intelligence and cultural superiority in explaining group differences as well as other explanation accounting for inequalities in outcomes among groups. [tags: Sociology]

749 words
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Gender Inequality - Through the media and the work of researchers, we get to know more and more on the issue of gender inequality in different areas of our society. However, although significant progress has been made during the twentieth century, in an attempt to equalize the rights of women and men, they still do not seem to be met daily. Having a job is considered important for men and women, although the centrality of work is organized completely differently by gender. This form of inequality persists in all areas such as: participation in decision making and the exercise of power, in private and social life, in promotion and in professional careers. [tags: discrimination, workplace, education, employment]
. 8 Works Cited

1147 words
(3.3 pages)

Balancing Inequality - The California public school system is failing in educating children state-wide. One of the most difficult problems is budget, which affects tremendously children in poor areas. Children from these areas should have equal access to resources, programs and opportunities as those from more propitious communities. In order to close the gap of inequality, we all need to change the way California school system’s funding is allocated and put into use. First, we must increase the income tax of the richest people or the top two tax brackets and divide that extra tax money we collected to public schools in poor areas. [tags: Education]
. 5 Works Cited

1289 words
(3.7 pages)

So Rich, So Poor by Peter Edelman - While it has proven to be difficult to end poverty in America, Peter Edelman is optimistic. In his book So Rich, So Poor Edelman makes a call to action. There are four prominent ideas that underpin Edelman’s reasoning throughout the book: (1) More people must understand why poverty is still so prevalent in America; (2) extreme poverty must be taken into consideration as a shocking 6 million Americans’ sole income was food stamps in 2011. This fact alone creates a sense of urgency that drives Edelman; (3) increasing income inequality should be treated as a moral issue; and (4) bold political action will be required if substantive progress will be made in alleviating poverty. [tags: poverty, income redistribution]
. 1 Works Cited

1010 words
(2.9 pages)

Environmental Inequality - In August of 2005, Hurricane Katrina vigorously tore apart the U.S. Gulf Coast Region killing at least 1500 people, ranking at the third deadliest hurricane in United States history. Author of Survival and Death in New Orleans, Patrick Sharkey (2007), looked specifically at data on New Orleans residents that perished during Katrina in an attempt to look at the communities that were most affected by this unfortunate disaster. The storm took the largest toll on the elderly population and by African Americans, who he argued were overrepresented in comparison to whites. [tags: Natural Disaster, Hurricane Katrina]

1741 words
(5 pages)

Education Inequality for Girls in China: Identifying Issues and Solutions of Gender Inequality - The purpose of the paper is to examine issues and to identify solutions of gender inequality for girls in education in China. According to Ridgeway (2011), gender inequality is regarded as an affair which the majority members of one sex is advantaged than the majority members of the other sex. Based on the societal expectations, men play more dominant and assertive roles in the society than women (Egbo, 2009). The dominant position of men reveals in education, health, employment, and pay (Klasen & Lamanna, 2009). [tags: Social Awareness, Confucian Philosophies]
. 22 Works Cited

3162 words
(9 pages)

Gender Wage Inequality - One cannot begin the discussion of gender pay gap without defining it. Simply put, gender pay gap is the inequality between men and women wages. Gender pay gap is a constant international problem, in which women are paid, on average, less than that of their male counterpart. As to if gender pay gap still exist, its exactness fluctuates depending on numerous factors such as professional status, country and regional location, gender, and age. In regards to gender, in some cases, both men and women have stated that the gap does not exist. [tags: Gender Pay Gap, Gender Roles, Men, Women]
. 7 Works Cited

1646 words
(4.7 pages)

Society and Structural Forces: Inequality and Poverty - Throughout this course that has been many key terms and perspectives presented. The first section of these paper two segments will be described and the societal and structural forces will be understood. Then the second part of the paper there will be core theoretical perspectives broken down and explained. Through this year the class has been broken down into 4 parts. There was the first part that discusses foundational processes. The second part talks about social boundaries and inequality. The third part talked about institutions. [tags: global culture, sexuality in society]
. 1 Works Cited

882 words
(2.5 pages)