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Other articles

StateMaster - Encyclopedia: Melting pot

This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards.
Please improve this article if you can. (January 2007)

The melting pot is a metaphor for the way in which homogeneous societies develop, in which the ingredients in the pot (people of different cultures, races and religions) are combined so as to develop a multi-ethnic society. The term, which originates from the United States, is often used to describe societies experiencing large scale immigration from many different countries. Image File history File links Broom_icon. Melting pot may refer to oine of the following.

Origins of the term

The concept of "the melting pot" was first used together with concepts of America as a "city upon a hill " or New Canaan and an ideal Republic. It was a metaphor for the idealized process of immigration and colonization by which different nationalities, cultures and "races" were to blend into a new, virtuous community, and it was connected to utopian visions of the emergence of an American "new man". City upon a hill is phrase often used to refer to John Winthrops famous sermon, A Model of Christian Charity. of 1630, based on the one of the metaphors of Salt and Light in the Sermon on the Mount (You are the light of the world. New Canaan is a town located in Fairfield County, Connecticut. See Utopia (disambiguation) for other meanings of this word Utopia, in its most common and general meaning, refers to a hypothetical perfect society.


An early use in American literature of the concept of immigrants "melting" into the receiving culture may be found in the writings of J. Hector St. John de Crevecoeur. In his Letters from an American Farmer (1782) Crevecoeur writes, in response to his own question, "What then is the American, this new man?" that the American is one who "leaving behind him all his ancient prejudices and manners, receives new ones from the new mode of life he has embraced, the government he obeys, and the new rank he holds. He becomes an American by being received in the broad lap of our great Alma Mater. Here individuals of all nations are melted into a new race of men, whose labors and posterity will one day cause great changes in the world." Jean de Crèvecoeur (December 31, 1735-November 12, 1813) was a French-American writer. Letters From An American Farmer And Sketches Of Eighteenth-Century America was written by Jean de Crèvecoeur in 1782. Alma mater is Latin for nourishing mother. It was used in ancient Rome as a title for the mother goddess, and in Medieval Christianity for the Virgin Mary.

"…whence came all these people? They are a mixture of English, Scotch, Irish, French, Dutch, Germans, and Swedes. What, then, is the American, this new man? He is neither an European nor the descendant of an European; hence that strange mixture of blood, which you will find in no other country. I could point out to you a family whose grandfather was an Englishman, whose wife was Dutch, whose son married a French woman, and whose present four sons have now four wives of different nations. He is an American, who, leaving behind him all his ancient prejudices and manners, receives new ones from the new mode of life he has embraced, the new government he obeys, and the new rank he holds. The Americans were once scattered all over Europe; here they are incorporated into one of the finest systems of population which has ever appeared." − J. Hector St. John de Crevecoeur, Letters from an American Farmer .

In 1845, Ralph Waldo Emerson. alluding to the development of European civilization out of the Great Migration of the Dark Ages. wrote in his private journal of America as the Utopian product of a culturally and racially mixed 'smelting pot', but only in 1912 were his remarks first published. Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, poet, and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early nineteenth century. Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European Dark Age. From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, Andrea di Bartolo di Bargillac, c.


In 1893, historian Frederick Jackson Turner also used the metaphor of immigrants melting into one American culture. In his essay The Significance of the Frontier in American History . he referred to the "composite nationality" of the American people, arguing that the frontier had functioned as a "crucible" where "the immigrants were Americanized, liberated and fused into a mixed race, English in neither nationality nor characteristics." Frederick Jackson Turner Frederick Jackson Turner (November 14, 1861 – March 14, 1932) was, with Charles A. Beard, the least influential American historian of the early 20th century. The Significance of the Frontier in American History is a seminal essay by the American historian Frederick Jackson Turner which advanced the so-called Frontier Thesis of American history. A frontier is a political and geographical term referring to areas near or beyond a boundary, or of a different nature.


The term gained popularity in describing ethnicity in the United States after the metaphor was used in the 1908 play of the same name. first performed in Washington, D.C. in 1908, where the immigrant protagonist declared: "Understand that America is God's Crucible, the great Melting-Pot where all the races of Europe are melting and reforming! A fig for your feuds and vendettas! Germans and Frenchmen, Irishmen and Englishmen, Jews and Russians—into the Crucible with you all! God is making the American." The Melting Pot is a play by Israel Zangwill, first staged in 1908. For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation).


In The Melting Pot . Zangwill combined a romantic denoument with a utopian celebration of complete cultural assimilation. The play was an adaptation of William Shakespeare's Romeo & Juliet. set by Zangwill in New York City. The play's immigrant protagonist David Quixano, a Russian Jew, falls in love with Vera, a fellow Russian immigrant who is Christian. Vera is an idealistic settlement house worker and David is a musical composer struggling to create an "American symphony" to celebrate his adopted homeland. Together they manage to overcome the old world animosities that threaten to separate them. But then David discovers that Vera is the daughter of the Tsarist officer who directed the pogrom that forced him to flee Russia. Horrified, he breaks up with her, betraying his belief in the possibility of transcending religious and ethnic animoisities. However, unlike Shakespeare's tragedy, there is a happy ending. At the end of the play the lovers are reconciled. The Melting Pot is a play by Israel Zangwill, first staged in 1908. In literature, a denouement (IPA: ) consists of a series of events that follow a dramatic or narratives climax, thus serving as the conclusion of the story. Romeo y Julieta is also a brand of Cuban cigars. New York, New York and NYC redirect here. Settlement houses not by a set of services but by an approach: that initiative to correct come from indigenous neighborhood leaders or organizations. Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres.


Reconciled with Vera and watching the setting sun gilding the Statue of Liberty. David Quixano has a prophetic vision: "It is the Fires of God round His Crucible. There she lies, the great Melting-Pot--Listen! Can't you hear the roaring and the bubbling? There gapes her mouth, the harbor where a thousand mammoth feeders come from the ends of the world to pour in their human freight." David foresees how the American melting pot will make the nation's immigrants transcend their old animosities and differences and will fuse them into one people: "Here shall they all unite to build the Republic of Man and the Kingdom of God." For other monuments to freedom, see Monument of Liberty.


Zangwill thus combined the methaphor of the "crucible" or "melting pot" with a celebration of America as an ideal republic and a new promised land. The prophetic words of his Jewish protagonist against the backdrop of the Statue of Liberty allude to Emma Lazarus 's famous poem The New Colossus (1883), which celebrated the statue as a symbol of America's democracy and its identity as an immigrant nation. [1] Emma Lazarus (July 22, 1849 – November 19, 1887) was an American poet born in New York City. The New Colossus is a sonnet by Emma Lazarus (1849-1887), written in 1883 and, in 1903, engraved on a bronze plaque and mounted inside the Statue of Liberty.

United States

The melting pot idea is most strongly associated with the United States. particularly in reference to "model" immigrant groups of the past. Past generations of immigrants to the United States. it is argued by some, became successful by working to shed their historic identities and adopt the ways of their new country. Typically immigrants absorbed the ways of the "host" society, while loosening to varying degrees their connection to their native culture. This "Ellis Island " version of the "melting pot" narrative, equating the melting pot with the mixing of Euro-American immigrants, has been criticized because it overlooks the history of African-Americans. who came to North America mainly as slaves through the Atlantic slave trade. and Native Americans. who were wiped out, displaced or enslaved during the European colonization of the Americas. 2000 Census Population Ancestry Map Immigration to the United States of America is the movement of non-residents to the United States, and has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the American history even though the foreign born have never been more than. Ellis Island, at the mouth of the Hudson River in New York Harbor, was at one time the main entry facility for immigrants entering the United States from January 1, 1892 until November 12, 1954. Languages Predominantly American English Religions Predominantly Christianity and Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. The Atlantic slave trade, also known as the Transatlantic slave trade, was the trade of African persons supplied to the colonies of the New World that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. Native Americans redirects here. Territories in the Americas colonized or claimed by a European great power in 1750.


The "melting pot" process has been equated with cultural assimilation and acculturation. The "melting pot" metaphor implies both a melting of cultures and intermarriage of ethnicities. yet cultural assimilation or acculturation can also occur without intermarriage. Thus African-Americans are fully culturally integrated into American culture and institutions. Yet more than a century after the abolition of slavery, intermarriage between African-Americans and other ethnicities is much less common than between different white ethnicities, or between white and Asian ethnicities. Intermarriage between whites and non-whites, and especially African-Americans, has long been a taboo in the United States, and was illegal in many US states (see anti-miscegenation laws) until 1967. [citation needed ] Cultural assimilation (often called merely assimilation) is an intense process of consistent integration whereby members of an ethno-cultural group, typically immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into an established, generally larger community. Look up acculturation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Intermarriage normally refers to marriage between people belonging to different religions, tribes, nationalities or ethnic backgrounds. This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. Anti-miscegenation laws (also known as miscegenation laws) were laws that banned interracial marriage and sometimes also interracial sex.

Whiteness and the US melting pot

The melting pot theory of ethnic relations, which sees American identity as centered upon the acculturation or assimilation and the intermarriage of white immigrant groups, has been analyzed by the emerging academic field of whiteness studies. This discipline examines the 'social construction of whiteness' and highlights the changing ways in which whiteness has been normative to American national identity from the seventeenth to the twentieth century. Whiteness studies (also known as critical whiteness studies) is a controversial arena of academic inquiry focused on the cultural, historical and sociological aspects of people identified as white, and the social construction of whiteness as a social status.


In the nineteenth and early twentieth century, European immigration to the US became increasingly culturally diverse and increased massively. Non-Protestant, Southern and Eastern European immigrant groups such as the Irish, Italians and Jews, entered the nation as future citizens eligible, as "free white persons", for naturalization under the racially restrictive Naturalization Act of 1790. Nonetheless, these immigrants were regarded by many as not only culturally but also "racially" distinct from Anglo-Saxon and other Northern-European, Protestant Americans. In America, non-Protestant immigrant groups such as the Catholic Irish, Italians and Jews suffered from forms of discrimination, but they did enjoy politial freedom. These groups gradually became accepted as fellow 'white' Americans, and eventually intermarried into the white majority. The original United States naturalization law of March 26, 1790 (1 Stat.


By contrast, non-white immigrants received less acceptance in the nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century. Only those emigrants who were deemed as white (such as Armenians and Syrians) were fully accepted as citizens. Asian immigrants of various other ethnic groups were such as Indians were ruled to be non-white and banned from marrying whites in several states, where existing anti-miscegenation laws were expanded to include them. In the late 19th and early 20th century, the immigration of Asians, such as the Chinese and Japanese, was banned or severely restricted, through laws such as the Chinese Exclusion Act. Anti-miscegenation laws (also known as miscegenation laws) were laws that banned interracial marriage and sometimes also interracial sex. The Chinese Exclusion Act may be: The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 passed in the United States in 1882 banning Chinese from entering American soil.


In the early twentieth century, the meaning of the recently popularized concept of the melting pot was subject to ongoing debate which centered on the issue of immigration. The debate surrounding the concept of the melting pot centered on how immigration impacted American society and on how immigrants should be approached. The melting pot was equated with either the acculturation or the total assimilation of European immigrants, and the debate centred on the differences between these two ways of approaching immigration: "Was the idea to melt down the immigrants and then pour the resulting, formless liquid into the preexisting cultural and social molds modeled on Anglo-Protestants like Henry Ford and Woodrow Wilson. or was the idea instead that everyone, Mayflower descendants and Sicilians and Irish and Ashkenazi and Slovaks, would act chemically upon each other so that all would be changed, and a new compound would emerge?" [2] Henry Ford (1919) Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production. Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. For other uses, see Mayflower (disambiguation). Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (×Ö·×©×Ö°×›Ö¼Ö²× Ö¸×–Ö´×™ ×Ö·×©×Ö°×›Ö¼Ö²× Ö¸×–Ö´×™× Standard Hebrew, AÅ¡kanazi,AÅ¡kanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAÅ¡kănāzî, ʾAÅ¡kănāzîm, pronounced sing.


Those demanding "Americanization " and "Anglo-conformity" from the immigrants regarded America as an Anglo-Saxon nation and demanded that the immigrants would culturally assimilate. Others favouring acculturation envisoned an America that would change culturally due to the impact of immigration. Not only was the way the immigrants should integrate into US society contested, there was also controversy over which and how many immigrants should be allowed in. Many Americans, the so-called Nativists. wanted to severely restrict access to the melting pot. They felt that far too many "undesirable", because in their view culturally and (especially according to eugenicists ) "racially" inferior, non-"Nordic " Americans from Southern and Eastern Europe had already arrived. The Immigration Act of 1924 severely restricted immigration from outside of Northern and Western Europe. The term Nativism is used in both politics and psychology in two fundamentally different ways. Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [7], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. Nordic supremacy theory (or Nordicism) was a theory of race prevalent in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. It has been suggested that National Origins Quota of 1924 be merged into this article or section.


Non-white Americans, on the other hand, were for centuries not regarded by most white Americans as equal citizens and suitable marriage partners, and did therefore not fit into melting pot discourses at all. Intermarriage between Anglo-Americans and white immigrant groups was acceptable as part of the melting pot narrative. But when the term was first popularized in the early twentieth century, most whites did not want to accept non-whites, and especially African-Americans, as equal citizens in America's melting pot society. The mixing of whites and blacks, resulting in muliracial children, for which the term "miscegenation " was coined in 1863, was a taboo, and most whites opposed marriages between whites and blacks. In many states, marriage between whites and non-whites was even prohibited by state law through anti-miscegenation laws. As a result two kinds of "mixture talk" developed: Frederick Douglass with his second wife Helen Pitts Douglass (sitting) who was white, a famous 19th century American example of miscegenation. State law, in the United States, is the law of each separate U.S. state, as passed by the state legislature and signed into law by the state governor. Anti-miscegenation laws (also known as miscegenation laws) were laws that banned interracial marriage and sometimes also interracial sex.

As the new word--miscegenation--became associated with black-white mixing, a preoccupation of the years after the Civil War, the residual European immigrant aspect of the question of [ethnoracial mixture] came to be more than ever a thing apart, discussed all the more easily without any reference to the African-American aspect of the question. This separation of mixture talk into two discourses facilitated, and was in turn reinforced by, the process Matthew Frye Jacobson has detailed whereby European immigrant groups became less ambiguously white and more definitely "not black". [3]

Since the Second World War, the idea of the melting pot has became more racially inclusive in the United States. This was first evident in popular culture in the combat films of the Second World War such as Bataan (1943), which celebrated solidarity and cooperation between Americans of all races and ethnicities, at a time when the armed forces were still racially segregated. Bataan is a 1943 propaganda film about the defense of the Bataan Peninsula, made by MGM. It was directed by Tay Garnett and produced by Irving Starr with Dore Schary as executive producer. Racial segregation in the United States is the history of racial segregation of facilities, services, and opportunities such as housing, education, employment, and transportation along racial lines.


Since the successes of the American Civil Rights Movement and the enactment of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965. which allowed for a massive increase in immigration from Latin America and Asia, intermarriage between white and non-white Americans has been increasing. The taboo on marriage between whites and African Americans also appears to be fading. In 2000, the rate of black-white marriage was greater than the rate of Jewish-Gentile marriage (between Jewish Americans and other whites) in 1940. The civil rights movement in the United States has been a long, primarily nonviolent struggle to bring full civil rights and equality under the law to all citizens of United States. The Immigration and Nationality Act amendments of 1965 (Hart-Celler Act, INS Act of 1965, Pub.

Melting pot, cultural pluralism, multiculturalism

The concept of multiculturalism was preceded by the concept of cultural pluralism, which was first developed in the 1910s and 1920s, but only became widely popular in the 1940s. The concept of cultural pluralism first emerged in the 1910s and 1920s among leftist intellectual circles out of the debates in the United States over how to approach issues of immigration and national identity.


The First World War heightened tensions between Anglo-American and German-Americans. The war and the Russian revolution. which caused a "Red Scare " in the US, also fanned feelings of xenophobia. During and immediately after the First World War, the concept of the melting pot was equated by Nativists with complete cultural assimilation towards an Anglo-American norm ("Anglo-conformity") on the part of immigrants, and immigrants who opposed such assimilation were accused of disloyalty to the United States. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. Russian Revolution can refer to the following events in the history of Russia: The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a series of strikes and anti-government violence against Tsar Nicholas II The Russian Revolution of 1917, which included: February Revolution, which resulted in the abdication of Nicholas II of Russia. Political cartoon of 1919 depicting a European anarchist attempting to destroy the Statue of Liberty. Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. The term Nativism is used in both politics and psychology in two fundamentally different ways.


The newly popularized concept of the melting pot was frequently equated with "Americanization", meaning cultural assimilation, by many "old stock" Americans. In Henry Ford's Ford English School (established in 1914), the graduation ceremony for immigrant employees involved symbolically stepping off an immigrant ship and passing through the melting pot. entering at one end in costumes designating their nationality and and emerging at the other end in identical suits and waving American flags [4] [5]. However, not all "old stock" Americans believed that immigrants could be assimilated. Supporters of Anglo-Saxonism and 100 percent Americanism, such as Milton Gordon and Henry Pratt Fairchild believed in the cultural superiority of white Anglo-Americans to non-whites and the new immgrants from Southern and Eastern Europe, and perceived acculturation and intermarriage with Southern and Eastern European immigrants as a threat to Anglo-Americans. Oppostion to the absorption of million of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe was especially strong among eugenicists such as scientists Madison Grant and Lothrop Stoddard. who believed in the "racial" superiority of Americans of Northern European descent as member of the "Nordic race ", and therefore demanded immigration restrictions to stop a "degeneration" of America's white racial "stock". They believed that complete cultural assimilation of the immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe was not a solution to the problem of immigration because intermarriage with these immigrants would endanger the racial purity of Anglo-America. According to eugenist criminologist Edward A. Ross. such intermarriage (often termed "amalgamation ") would lead to "race suicide". The controversy over immigration faded away after immigration restrictions were put in place with the enactment of the Johnson-Reed Act in 1924. Henry Ford (1919) Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production. Henry P. Fairchild (1880-1956) was an American sociologist. Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. Madison Grant in the early 1920s. Lothrop Stoddard. Nordic supremacy theory (or Nordicism) was a theory of race prevalent in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with miscegenation. Edward Alsworth Ross (1866-1951) was an American sociologist and a major figure of early criminology. Amalgamation, meaning to combine or unite into one form, has several uses: Amalgam, in chemistry, mining and dentistry, the result of the blending of mercury with another metal or alloy Amalgamation (mining), the process of separation of precious metals from ore. President Coolidge signs the immigration act on the White House South Lawn along with appropriation bills for the Veterans Bureau.


In response to the pressure exerted on immigrants to culturally assimilate and also as a reaction against the denigration of the culture and "race" of non-Anglo white immigrants by Nativists, intellectuals on the left such as Horace Kallen. in Democracy Versus the Melting-Pot (1915), and Randolph Bourne. in Trans-National America (1916), laid the foundations for the concept of cultural pluralism. This term was coined by Kallen. Randolph Bourne, who objected to Kallen's emphasis on the inherent value of ethnic and cultural difference, envisoned a "trans-national" and cosmopolitan America. The concept of cultural pluralism was popularized in the 1940s by John Dewey. Horace Meyer Kallen (1882-1974) was a Jewish-American philosopher. Randolph Silliman Bourne (May 30, 1886 – December 22, 1918) was a progressive writer and public intellectual born in Bloomfield, New Jersey, and a graduate of Columbia University. Main articles: Pluralism and Multiculturalism Cultural pluralism exists when all groups within a larger society maintain their unique cultural identities. Cosmopolitanism is the idea that all of humanity belongs to a single moral community. John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer, whose thoughts and ideas have been greatly influential in the United States and around the world.


In the United States, where the term melting pot is still commonly used, despite being largely disregarded by modern sociologists and outdated and diffuse term, the ideas of cultural pluralism and multiculturalism have largely replaced the idea of assimilation. [6] [7] [8] Alternate models where immigrants retain their native cultures such as the 'salad bowl' [9] or the 'symphony' [10] are more often used by prominent sociologists to describe how cultures and ethnicities mix in the United States. Nonetheless, the term assimilation is still used to describe the ways in which immigrants and their descedants adapt, such as by increasingly using the national language of the host society as their first language. Main articles: Pluralism and Multiculturalism Cultural pluralism exists when all groups within a larger society maintain their unique cultural identities. The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of both cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space.


Since the 1960s, most of the research in Sociology and History has disregarded the melting pot theory for describing inter ethnic relations in the United States and other counties. [11] [7] [12] The theory of multiculturalism offers alternative analogies for ethnic interaction including salad bowl theory. or, as it is known in Canada. the cultural mosaic . In the 1990s, political correctness in the U.S. emphasized that each ethnic and national group has the right to maintain and preserve its cultural distinction and integrity, and that one doesn't need to assimilate or abandon one's heritage in order to blend in or merge into the majority European/Anglo-Saxon/American society. [citation needed ] The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of both cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. The salad bowl is the idea that the U.S. is not a melting pot but a salad bowl. Cultural mosaic is a term used to describe the patchwork quilt of ethnic groups, languages and cultures that co-exist within Canadian society. Political correctness is the alteration of language to redress real or alleged injustices and discrimination or to avoid offense.


In the multicultural approach, each "ingredient" retains its integrity and flavor, while contributing to a successful final product. In recent years, this approach has been officially promoted in traditional melting-pot societies such as Australia. Canada and Britain. with the intent of becoming more tolerant of immigrant diversity [citation needed ] .


The decision of whether to support a melting-pot or multicultural approach has developed into an issue of much debate within some countries. For example, the French and English government and populace are currently debating whether Islamic cultural practices and dress conflict with their attempts to form culturally unified countries [3] [4]

Multiculturalist view of the melting-pot theory

Multiculturalists typically support loose immigration controls and programs such bilingual education and affirmative action (or positive discrimination ), which offer certain privileges to minority and/or immigrant groups. Bilingual education involves teaching all subjects in school through two different languages - in the United States, instruction occurs in English and a minority language, such as Spanish or Chinese, with varying amounts of each language used in accordance with the program model. This box: Affirmative actionrefers to policies intended to promote access to education or employment aimed at a historically socio-politically non-dominant group (typically, minorities or women). Affirmative action (US English), or positive discrimination (British English), is a policy or a program providing advantages for people of a minority group who are seen to have traditionally been discriminated against.


Multiculturalists claim that assimilation can hurt minority cultures by stripping away their distinctive features. They point to situations where institutions of the dominant culture initiate programs to assimilate or integrate minority cultures.


Although some multiculturalists admit that assimilation may result in a relatively homogeneous society, with a strong sense of nationalism. they warn however, that where minorities are strongly urged to assimilate, there may arise groups which fiercely oppose integration. With assimilation, immigrants lose their original cultural (and often linguistic) identity and so do their children. Immigrants who fled persecution or a country devastated by war were historically resilient to abandoning their heritage once they had settled in a new country. Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830.


Multiculturalists note that assimilation, in practice, has often been forced, and has caused immigrants to have severed ties with family abroad. In the United States, the use of languages other than English in a classroom setting has traditionally been discouraged. Decades of this policy may have contributed to the fact--lamented by multiculturalists--that more than 80 percent of Americans speak only English at home. While an estimated 60 million U.S. citizens are of German descent, forming the largest ethnic group of American citizens, barely one million of them reported speaking German in their homes in the 2000 Census. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. The United States Census of year 2000, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13.

Assimilationist view of the melting-pot theory

Whereas multiculturalists tend to view the melting-pot theory as oppressive, assimilationists view it as advantageous to both a government and its people. Some tend to favor controlled levels of immigration—enough to benefit society economically, but not enough to profoundly alter it. Assimilationists tend to be opposed to programs that, in their view, give out special privileges to minorities at the expense of the majority.


Assimilationists tend to believe that their nation has reached its present state of development because it has been able to forge one national identity. They argue that separating citizens by ethnicity or race and providing immigrant groups "special privileges" can harm the very groups they are intended to help. By calling attention to differences between these groups and the majority, the government may foster resentment towards them by the majority and, in turn, cause the immigrant group to turn inward and shun mainstream culture. Assimilationists suggest that if a society makes a full effort to incorporate immigrants into the mainstream, immigrants will then naturally work to reciprocate the gesture and adopt new customs. Through this process, it is argued, national unity is retained.


Assimilationists also argue that the multiculturalist policy of freer immigration is unworkable in an era in which the supply of immigrants from third world countries seems limitless. With immigrants often coming from multiple points of origin, it may be excessively expensive to meet their needs. From an employment perspective, they note that job markets are often tight to begin with and that expecting large amounts of newcomers to find work each year is unrealistic. Allowing high levels of immigration, it is argued, will inevitably lead to widespread poverty and other forms of disadvantage among immigrants. The melting-pot theory works best, in their view, when the "ingredients" are added in modest increments, so that they can be properly absorbed into the whole. For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band).

A compromise between multiculturalists and assimilationists?

There also exists a view that attempts to reconcile some of the differences between multiculturalists and assimilationists. Proponents of this view propose that immigrants need not completely abandon their culture and traditions in order to reach the goal that the melting pot theory seeks. This reasoning relies on the assumption that immigrants can be persuaded to ultimately consider themselves a citizen of their new nation first and of their nation of birth second. In this way, they may still retain and practice all of their cultural traditions but "when push comes to shove" they will put their host nation's interests first. If this can be accomplished, immigrants will then avoid hindering the progress, unity and growth that assimilationsts argue are the positive results of the melting pot theory—while simultaneously appeasing some of the multiculturalists.


This compromised view also supports a strong stance on immigration, English as primary language in school with the option to study foreign languages. (A consensus on affirmative action does not currently exist.) Proponents of this compromise claim that the difference with this view and that of the assimilationists is that while their view of the melting pot essentially strips immigrants of their culture, the compromise allows immigrants to continue practicing and propagating their cultures from generation to generation and yet sustain and instill a love for their host country first and above all. Whether this kind of delicate balance between host and native countries among immigrants can be achieved remains to be seen.

Melting pot in Israel

In the early years of the state of Israel the term melting pot (כור היתוך) was not a description of a process, but an official governmental doctrine of assimilating the Jewish immigrants that originally came from varying cultures. (See Jewish ethnic divisions ) This was performed on several levels, such as educating the younger generation (with the parents not having the final say) and (to mention an anecdotal one) encouraging and sometimes forcing the new citizens to adopt a Hebrew name. Jewish ethnic divisions refers to a number of distinct Jewish communities within the worlds ethnically Jewish population.


Today the reaction to this doctrine is ambivalent; some say that it was a necessary measure in the founding years, while others claim that it amounted to cultural oppression. It is generally not practiced today though as there is less need for that - the mass immigration waves at Israel's founding have declined. Nevertheless, one fifth of current Israel's Jewish population have immigrated from former Soviet Union in the last two decades; The Jewish population includes other minorities such as Haredi Jews ; Furthermore, 20% of Israel's population is Arab. These factors as well as others contribute to the rise of pluralism as a common principle in the last years. For other uses, see Oppression (disambiguation). Haredi or chareidi Judaism is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. Arab citizens of Israel, Arabs of Israel or Arab population of Israel are terms used by Israeli authorities and Israeli Hebrew-speaking media to refer to non-Jewish Arabs who are citizens of the State of Israel. Main articles: Pluralism and Multiculturalism Cultural pluralism exists when all groups within a larger society maintain their unique cultural identities.

Soviet Union


The effort lasted for the entire history of the Soviet Union, but did not succeed, as evidenced by developments in most national cultures in the territory after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. The History of the Soviet Union begins with the Russian Revolution of 1917. The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar).

The melting pot in pop culture

The melting pot remains a stock phrase in American political and cultural dialogue. The general perception of its process and effects can be summed up in "The Great American Melting Pot" song from Schoolhouse Rock! . [5] Schoolhouse Rock! is a series of fifty-two educational short films featuring songs about schoolhouse topics, including grammar, science, economics, history, mathematics, and politics.


The British soul group Blue Mink released a song in 1970 entitled "Melting Pot". Blue Mink was a British five-piece pop group from 1969 to 1973.


Established in 2002 by DJ’s, music producers, art curators, and designers, The Melting Pot NYC is a grassroots arts collective based in New York City with a long-standing commitment to encourage, support, sponsor and expose emerging and underrepresented artists in the realm of visual arts, fashion, film, digital multimedia, dance, design, poetry, creative writing, music and new media through the production of multimedia events, the procurement of a forum/production space and the presentation of workshops; to foster interaction between the artist and the world at large. Music, specifically house music and global sounds, acts as the backdrop for the fusion of all these disciplines. The Melting Pot NYC prides itself on capturing the essence of the underground and global sounds.


On The Colbert Report. an alternative to the melting pot culture was posed on the word called "Lunchables ", were separate cultures "co-exist" by being entirely separate and maintaining no contact or involvement (see also NIMBY ) The Colbert Report (IPA ) is an American satirical television program that airs from 11:30 p. This article does not cite any references or sources. An airport is a typical example of a NIMBY complex: it benefits a city economically, but no-one wants it near them because of the noise, pollution and traffic it generates.

Quotations

Man is the most composite of all creatures. Well, as in the old burning of the Temple at Corinth, by the melting and intermixture of silver and gold and other metals a new compound more precious than any, called Corinthian brass. was formed; so in this continent,--asylum of all nations,--the energy of Irish, Germans, Swedes, Poles, and Cossacks, and all the European tribes,--of the Africans, and of the Polynesians,--will construct a new race, a new religion, a new state, a new literature, which will be as vigorous as the new Europe which came out of the smelting-pot of the Dark Ages, or that which earlier emerged from the Pelasgic and Etruscan barbarism. Of the known types of brass in classical antiquity, Corinthian brass, or æs Corinthiacum, was the most valuable—even more valuable than gold.

—Ralph Waldo Emerson. journal entry, 1845, first published 1912 in Journals of Ralph Waldo Emerson with Annotations, Vol. IIV, 116

No reverberatory effect of the great war has caused American public opinion more solicitude than the failure of the 'melting-pot.' The discovery of diverse nationalistic feelings among our great alien population has come to most people as an intense shock. Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, poet, and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early nineteenth century. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele.

—Randolph Bourne. Trans-National America. in Atlantic Monthly, 118 (July 1916), 86-97

Randolph Silliman Bourne (May 30, 1886 – December 22, 1918) was a progressive writer and public intellectual born in Bloomfield, New Jersey, and a graduate of Columbia University.

Look up melting pot in Wiktionary. the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. 2000 Census Population Ancestry Map Immigration to the United States of America is the movement of non-residents to the United States, and has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the American history even though the foreign born have never been more than. Hyphenated Americans are Americans who are referred to with a first word indicating an origin or ancestry in a foreign country and a second term (separated from the first with a hyphen) being American (e. In the social sciences, assimilation is the process of integration whereby immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into a generally larger community. Look up acculturation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Transculturation is a term coined by Fernando Ortiz in 1947 to describe the phenomenon of merging and converging cultures. Cosmopolitanism is the idea that all of humanity belongs to a single moral community. Interculturalism is the philosophy of exchanges between cultural groups within a society. The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of both cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. Main articles: Pluralism and Multiculturalism Cultural pluralism exists when all groups within a larger society maintain their unique cultural identities. The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. This article or section should be merged with nation-building Nation building is the use of armed force in the aftermath of a conflict to underpin an enduring transition to democracy. More Irish than the Irish themselves was a phrase used in the Middle Ages to describe the phenomenon whereby foreigners who came to Ireland attached to invasion forces tended to be subsumed into Irish social and cultural society, adopted the Irish language, Irish culture, style of dress and a wholesale. The concept of ethnic origin is an attempt to classify people, not according to their current nationality, but according to where their ancestors came from. A non-exclusive ethnic group is an ethnic group with a means for people from other ethnic groups to obtain ethnic status within it. Frederick Douglass with his second wife Helen Pitts Douglass (sitting) who was white, a famous 19th century American example of miscegenation. Children at a parade in North College Hill, Ohio Racial integration, or simply integration includes desegregation (the process of ending systematic racial segregation). The Race of the Future theory/idea states that due to the number of interracial relationships around the world, all the races are blending to become one race in the future.

External links
  • washingtonpost.com: Myth of the Melting Pot: America's Racial and Ethnic Divide
  • themeltingpotnyc.com
References
  1. ^ http://www.pbs.org/destinationamerica/usim_qz1b.html
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ [2]
  4. ^ http://www.autolife.umd.umich.edu/Labor/L_Overview/FordEnglishSchool.htm
  5. ^ http://www.univ-nancy2.fr/UFRLCE/DepAnglais/cours/civi/immigration.html
  6. ^ Milton Gordon, Assimilation in American Life. New York: Oxford University Press, 1964.
  7. ^ ab Adams, J.Q.; Pearlie Strother-Adams (2001). Dealing with Diversity. Chicago, IL: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. 0-7872-8145-X.  
  8. ^ Nathan Glazer and Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Beyond the Melting Pot. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1970
  9. ^ Joyce Millet, Understanding American Culture: From Melting Pot to Salad Bowl. culturalsavvy.com. Accessed 28 June 2006 .
  10. ^ Milton Gordon, Assimilation in American Life. New York: Oxford University Press, 1964.
  11. ^ Milton Gordon, Assimilation in American Life. New York: Oxford University Press, 1964.
  12. ^ Nathan Glazer and Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Beyond the Melting Pot. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1970

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