DELHI AIR Pollution
Nov 14, 2016
Delhi is among the world’s most polluted cities. In 2014, it was ranked the most polluted globally in terms of PM 2.5, by the World Health Organisation (WHO). This year in 2016, Delhiites has witnessed worst form of pollution at the onset of winters.
Sources of Pollution:
Air pollution in Delhi’s National Capital Region (NCR) is comprised of a complex mix of pollution from human activities (vehicle emissions, industry, construction and residential fuel burning) as well as natural sources like dust and sea salt. The heavy concentration of particulate matter is greatly affected by meteorological conditions –in the winter, cool air causes “inversions” that stagnant the air and trap pollution close to the ground.
Meteorological: During the winter months, cool air stagnates over the city, keeping pollution close to the ground where people breathe. Delhi’s persistent winter fog only worsens the problem. Stagnant air explains why pollution levels vary less widely over the day in winter than in spring, as is evident in the chart above. In spring, warm, rising air moves pollution out, so the average pollution at ground level follows more closely the profile of polluting activities throughout the day. During the afternoon when people are at work, it drops, only to rise again with the evening rush hour. It stays relatively high overnight, likely due to the practice of trucking goods, not only in and out but through Delhi.
Steps that could be taken are
A IIT Kanpur has gave following measures to be adopted
Diesel particulate filter: PM emission reduction efficiency of 60-90 per cent.
Effect: 10 µg/cu.m improvement in PM concentration.
Electric/hybrid vehicles: If introduced, then by January 2017, study assumes, 2% two-wheelers, 10% three-wheelers and 2% four-wheelers will be electric/hybrid.
Effect: 4.5% reduction in PM emission, 1-2 µg/cu.m net improvement in air quality.
Sulphur: Bring down sulphur content to 10 parts per million (ppm) by end-2017.
Effect: 6% drop in PM10 and PM2.5 emission from vehicles.51% overall reduction in vehicular emission if all recommendations implemented.
Industries be made to use light diesel oil and high speed diesel with sulphur content 500 ppm or less in boilers or furnaces. Allow no new polluting industry, it adds.
Effect: 15 to 30% control in PM from this source, negligible sulphur-dioxide.
Diesel generators: Recommendation: Reduced sulphur content to 500 ppm.
Effect: 15 to 30% reduction in PM emission from this source from present 1400 kg/d.
Recommendation: Ban coal for cooking, shift to electric or gas-based devices, stop burning municipal solid waste. Every day, these sources contribute an estimated 12.8 tonnes/day of PM 10
Effect: 57% reduction in PM 10 from these sources.
Recommendation: Spray water at construction sites, use wind breakers, bag filters at silos, cover sites.
Effect: 49% reduction in PM10 and PM2.5.
NCR is a contiguous area with similarities in emitting sources, for this it is necessary that the control options are implemented for the entire NCR. With the implementation of control options in Delhi as well as NCR, the overall air quality in Delhi will improve significantly and expected mean PM10 levels will be 120 µg/cu.m and PM2.5 will be 72 µg/cu.m. In addition to the above control options, some local efforts will be required to ensure that city of Delhi and NCR attain the air quality standards all through the year and possibly for many years to come,Ecology,-Environment-and-Disaster-Management
Published: 23rd March, 2015 Last Edited: 23rd March, 2015
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The population of Delhi is exploding as per the census of Indian figures. The present vehicle population of Delhi is estimated to be about 15.90 lakhs. The urban sprawl and traffic congestion are the main problems and quality of life in the city is affected by all levels of government. In this report, a detailed explanation of transport systems and the methodology is explained. The technologies to reduce the emissions were discussed and precise study is done. According to the project plan, next task would be to do a thorough research on the methods used to reduce the vehicular emission.1.1 INTRODUCION:
The rapidly escalating mega city 'Delhi' is the prime source of severe pollution due to the unremitting expansion of population and the vehicles. However, the ownership of the vehicles is still a portion of industrialized countries. The convolution in Delhi's transport sector is scrutinized, along with the prediction of future problems and its alternation methods. (Padam and Singh, 2001) The greenhouse emissions in Delhi's transportation sector are predictable to be soared which could be significantly lowered by the policies and technologies which will lower down the emission growth rate but will increase the mobility, improving the air quality and lowering the transport costs. (Bose, Ranjan and Sperling, 2001)
The UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs Popular Division currently place Delhi, with its population of 22.16 million, as the world's second largest urban agglomeration behind Tokyo. Delhi being the mega city and with the increase in population in Delhi due to both natural birth rates and migrations from the rural and smaller towns, the demand for vehicles have been increased which caused the transport crisis exemplified as obstruction, noise, traffic fatalities, pollution, and inequity. Vehicles are the foremost source of the noise and air pollution in the city. The demand of the hour is to control the urban transport policy which can be done through the choice of appropriate technology for public transport systems, incorporated planning, and use of unsoiled technologies (Padam &Â Singh, 2001).1.1 History of Traffic growth in Delhi
The most discussed and documented city in India is Delhi. A study by Indian Institute of Technology showed that the share of non -motorized modes of transport ranged between 8% and 66% of motorized two wheelers between 22% and 55%, and of cars between 15% and 44%. Delhi's growth in population is resulted mostly from low income people and the policies have focused on the environmental concerns and ignored the mobility needs of large section of population that is dependent on public transport and non motorized transport. Transport and land use policies are designed to address the concerns of high income people which are dependent on private motorized vehicles. Although 30 - 70% of residents in low income are dependent on informal sector work but the large proportion of population are struggling to inappropriate policies.1.2 HEALTH IMPACTS
Traffic injuries and air pollution are the two most important adverse impacts of transport policies. Increased air pollution affects the health of the citizens - which has become a major public concern, which is evident from the policies and it is been discussed as a major health issue.1.3 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF URBAN TRANSPORT:
The foremost contributor to the air pollution in urban India is the growing transport sector. The health of the population in the city is mostly affected by the emissions from the motor vehicles which pollutes the air and transforms the fresh air to the polluted air. According to the research, the problems of air pollution in Indian cities can be estimated from the fact that more than 2% of the populace in the principal age of life i.e. 15 to 45 years of age die precipitately in Delhi. The transport system and air pollution is in direct relationship, where the vehicular emission depends on the vehicles - km, speed, age of the vehicle, and the emission rate of variable vehicle categories. (Bose, Ranjan, & Sperling 2001).1.4 TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM SUSTAINABILITY:
Transportation System Sustainability is defined as the system through impact of systems on the environment, economy and broad social well-being; and measured by the system efficiency and competence and impacts of the system on innate environment. (Jeon.c.m. & amekudzi.a.,2005) Thus, sustainability necessitates the more equitable, professional and environmentally receptive transport system. This cannot be simply attained by the change in 'vehicle design or improved traffic', the way of thinking about the transportation system amongst the populace has to be changed and also how we classify and assess the solutions to the transport problems. (Litmann, 1999)1.5 SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT:
Sustainable Transportation Planning focused on access which can frequently be progressed with the strategies which further condense the requirement to travel altogether, like for improved communications and land use management. It also requires the comprehensive decision making which takes into account the indirect and interrelated effects. The travel choices, efficient use of land and efficient pricing are the precise strategies that can help support the sustainability. (Litmann, T. 1999)1.6 VEHICULAR EMISSION
One of the major contributors to air pollution is transport sector. According to studies by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) of India 72% of air pollution in Delhi is caused by vehicular emission and 96.9% of hydrocarbons, 76.2% of CO are caused by emissions from the transport sector in Delhi. With deteriorating levels of mass transport services and increasing use of personalised modes, vehicular emission has reached an alarming level (S. K. Singh, 2005)METHODOLOGY
The main aim is to examine the urban transport policies in Delhi in-order to assess the Environmental Management point of view, the ways in which the policies are best placed to support economic and social activities.
The objective of this policy is to ensure safe, affordable, quick, comfortable, reliable and sustainable access for the growing number of city residents to jobs, education, recreation and such other needs within our cities.Â Â This is sought to be achieved by:
1.Â To examineÂ transportÂ policyÂ in aÂ city.
2.Â To examineÂ the establishment of quality focused multi-modal publicÂ transportÂ systems that are well integrated, providing seamless travel across modes.
3.Â To evaluate the promotion of cleaner technologies in order toÂ reduceÂ pollution levels throughÂ changes in traveling practices, better enforcement, stricter norms, technological improvements, etc.Â Â Â2.1 Transport policy
Delhi has the most mixed pattern of land use amongst the Indian cities due to the number of populace walking from their place of residence to the workplace. (Tiwari, G. 2009) The use of land policies can seek to limit the travel through two main mechanisms, reducing the need to travel i.e. either ensuring the reasonable proximity between places of residence and work or by creating the mixes of facilities, which furthermore increases the scope for multipurpose trips and non-motorized travel like walking and cycling or any form of public transportation. The effective use of land policies depends on the adoption of policies which substantially increases the real costs of car travel and possibly raises travel costs more generally. (Hoyle.B, & Knowles.R, 2001). The policy and the practice should reflect the requirement to shape urban areas so as to limit the need for motorized transport. However it may not be a great contributing deal to ease immediate problem but a vital investment for future quality of urban environment. (ECMC, 1995)2.2 Technologies for PublicÂ transport:
There has been increasing concern about the dependence on the usage of cars and requirement for improving the environm
ent in many Indian cities. The approaches have been taken up such as, construction of new public transport systems. Likewise many are being planned and put into action around the worldÂ (Roger L. MackettÂ &Â Marion Edwards, 22 March 1996).
There is a broad spectrum of public transport technologies, at one end is the high capacity with high cost i.e. the underground metro systems and on the other hand is the low capacity bus systems running on a shared right of way. There is also the extreme range of intermediate possibilities such as 'buses on dedicated rights of way, elevated sky bus and monorail systems, electronic trolley buses, etc.' While some of them are most effective over high density trunk corridors others prove useful as feeder systems or subsystems that serve limited sub areas within a city. Similarly, there are examples of available waterways being taken advantage of for public transport as also systems like ropeways that suit hilly terrainsÂ (Urbanindia.nic.in).2.3 Use of cleaner technologies:
Petroleum based fuels are the most commonly used today there are other alternatives coming into focus slowly. CNG has been adopted in a big way for bus transport inÂ Delhi. To deal more effectively with vehicular pollution cleaner technologies need to be encouraged. Besides, renewable sources need to be tapped as a measure of sustainable development. Some vehicles on the roads have a tendency to be inadequately maintained and are excessively polluting (Padam & Singh, 2001).Â This is because the requirements of appropriateÂ maintenance are not stringent. Management should lay down a clear schedule to overcome these problems. To undergo periodic checkup and to obtain a specified certification statutory provisions would be introduced. All of these would require an efficient regulatory body be set up to monitor and enforce the adherence of emission and safety standards (Urbanindia.nic.in). "TheÂ introduction of alternate fuel vehicles can be beneficial from the point of view of local pollution, as they have the potential to reduce the emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulates etc. Also, the benefits of the alternate fuel vehicles can be significant in urban areas". (Ramanathan.R, & Parih.J.K, 1999)CLIMATE CHANGE IN DELHI Green House emissions:
Green House emissions are effectively increasing in developing countries due transportation sector are the keen contributor of global climate change. Man made emissions is changing our climate. In next two decades there will more effective changes in the climate as low income people are also meeting their needs for mobility and projected income growth. Human activities are leading to the increase of wide range of increase in global atmospheric concentrations of green house gases this includes carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide. (Transport and climate change http://www.gtz.de/de/dokumente/en-transport-and-climate-change-2007.pdf)
Main reason for the green house emissions in Delhi is due to the higher population
density and due to different cultural habits. Major issues of 'environmental consequences
are due to urbanization'.
(http://www.delhi.gov.in/wps/wcm/connect/5fa00f80410c7d319880fa579a6b604f/Executive+Summary.pdf?MOD=AJPERESHYPERLINK "http://www.delhi.gov.in/wps/wcm/connect/5fa00f80410c7d319880fa579a6b604f/Executive+Summary.pdf?MOD=AJPERES&CACHEID=5fa00f80410c7d319880fa579a6b604f"&HYPERLINK "http://www.delhi.gov.in/wps/wcm/connect/5fa00f80410c7d319880fa579a6b604f/Executive+Summary.pdf?MOD=AJPERES&CACHEID=5fa00f80410c7d319880fa579a6b604f"CACHEID=5fa00f80410c7d319880fa579a6b604f Inventorization of Green House Gases - Sources and Sinks in Delhi )TRANSPORTATION IN DELHI
The Transportation system is a significant component of urban infrastructure and life time of city. The ever growing population of Delhi has resulted in increasing demands on the transportation system and this increase in further years. The transportation system in Delhi has major confidence on its transport road and rail network. Development is mostly seen in highly efficient public transport system due to the introduction of the Delhi Metro and this leads to the rapid transformation and expansion. (Delhi metro among world's most top transit system, http://www.expressindia.com/latest-news/delhi-metro-among-worlds-top-five-claim-dmrc-officials/534246/) There are about 5.5 million registered vehicles in the city and this is the only place registered more number on vehicles in the world among all cities and most of them won't follow pollution emission with in municipal limits.( Traffic snarl snaps 42 Cr man-hour from Delhi, NCR workers).Public transport:
Delhi is a capital city their publics transport includes the Delhi Transportation Corporation bus system, taxis, cycle- rickshaws, Delhi metro, auto-rickshaws, local trains. (Local transport in Delhi, http://www.bharatonline.com/delhi/travel-tips/local-transport.html)
The most popular means of transportation for city travel is buses, which is one of the cheapest modes of transport in Delhi. One of the largest bus transport system in India.
Easily available in Delhi for hiring purposes are nothing but the taxis. Most of them are operated by DTC, used for both local commuting as well as long distance purposes. More expensive than buses but cheaper than taxis are auto rickshaws.
Delhi metro are the rail based mass rapid transit system gained ground this includes suburban railways.
("HYPERLINK "http://delhiplanning.nic.in/Economic Survey/Ecosur2001-02/PDF/chapter12.pdf"Delhi TransportHYPERLINK "http://delhiplanning.nic.in/Economic Survey/Ecosur2001-02/PDF/chapter12.pdf"". Delhi Govt. Â http://delhiplanning.nic.in/Economic%20Survey/Ecosur2001-02/PDF/chapter12.pdf. Retrieved 2006-05-14. )Private transport: Implementation of new methods:
To introduce eco- friendly four wheelers or vehicles in the capital city.(changing face of delhi transport http://www.merinews.com/article/changing-face-of-public-transportation-in-delhi/15801578.shtml)CO2 EMMISSIONS:
Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Vehicles and Fuels in Delhi
Fuel GHG Fuel GHG
(Km/lit) (G/veh-km) (Km/lit) (G/veh-km)
Gasoline Motor stroke (2-stroke) 38.4 118 42.4 86
Gasoline Motor stroke (4-stroke) 53.8 70 39.9 52
Electric motor scooter N/a 51 N/A 48
Gasoline mini car 24.9 140 28.7 119
Gasoline car 13.6 293 14.5 265
Diesel car 20.0 172 21.3 162
CNG car N/A 234 N/A 198
Electric car N/A 182 N/A 155
Diesel Bus 3.27 963 3.36 975
CNG Bus N/A 1050 N/A 970
Fuel Cell Bus (Methanol) N/A N/A N/A 686
Table 6 presents estimates of energy consumption and GHG emissions for each travel mode and
technology. These estimates assume adoption of existing and state-of-the-art efficiency innovations and small
increases in fuel prices over time. If fuel prices were to be substantially higher than at present or the government
were to impose fuel economy standards, then fuel consumption (and GHG emissions) would be lower.
The fuel economy and GHG emission factors presented in Table 6 are based on typical vehicles likely to
be operating through 2020 in Delhi.37 The GHG emission factors are CO2-equivalent measures (see Appendix).
They include the principal greenhouse gases and emissions from the full fuel cycle (from "well to wheels").38
(Ministry of Home Affairs, Population Projection for India and States 1996 - 2016, Registrar General of
India, Controller of Publications, 1996)Commuter's behavior New technology Introduction to new technology CONCUSION:
The aims and objectives of the study were successfully achieved and he research has answered the main aim of study.
Delhi also faces the same transportation challenges as many other cities of the developing world. Even though strong initiatives are aimed at restraining vehicle and energy consumption have been scarce in delhi. To reduce the air pollution, Supreme Court has issued directives to reduce air pollution to the health of delhi residents. Delhi officials should place much more importance on managing demand and encouraging alternatives to the other sources. The strong commitment by the entire community and the cooperation between governments would be helpful to achieve the goals. The most important strategy is to slow down the increasing GHG emissions. In the next two decades the transport related GHG emissions will at least double in Delhi if the policy makers do not adopt the important transportation measures. The main measures are to reduce the rapid growth in GHG emissions in Delhi in the foreseeable future.
Carbon emissions from the transport activities of the vehicles were much higher than the expected limits. Based on the carbon footprint of Delhi's transport, recommendations are provided to reduce the carbon emissions from the transportation sector. The study has described some of the main issues which are related to the environmental impacts of transportation. Local governments and national bodies were willing to discuss with the transport industries regarding the key issues to reduce the private transport and to encourage the public sector with better use of technologies. The primary thing for thr improvement of environment is to use the public transport and it is very convenient and cheapest way to do. Delhi Transportation authority revealed that half of used car journeys are done for shorter journeys, which can also be done by other way.
Public Transport- Not Clean or Green
For any system developed so far there may be upsides and downsides. The most important facts related to the downturn of the public transport system are some locations cannot be travelled via public transport then the users prefer to use alternative transport like cars or bikes etc. The vehicle users are less preferred about the pollution and its impact towards the future society. It is Mandatory issue of the Government and various private sectors who were earning on public transport should conduct several public awareness sessions to motivate and shift the people towards the use of public transport System.
The More we use public transport system, is the more we benefit the society by giving cleaner and greener environment for the further generation.
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