Electrical Vehicles and Benefits to the Environment
There is a serious problem facing the world right now. It is air pollution. The number one contributor to this epidemic is automobile emissions. We have all heard of the issues that are involved with air pollution including the depletion of the o-zone layer, the green house effect, and acid rain. The problem has been scoped from every imaginable angle, and now it is time to solve the problem. I propose that each of the ‘Big Three’ (Ford, General Motors, and Chrysler) car manufacturers be required to have 10% of their product line as EV’s By the year 2010. I propose this because it will be the start of cleaner air, EV advancement, and awareness of EV’s and how they work.
The first step in getting this proposal to become law is to talk with congress people from our own states. We must first let the idea get bounced around before we start to attack to top of the totem pole. In the proposal will be the reasons as to why we are making such a bold statement.
The first reason is to achieve cleaner air. Ever since the invention of vehicles, they have been polluters. It started with the horse draw carriages which led to the horses leaving their anal discharge on the roads. Next came the steam engine which burned fuel to heat the boilers and started an era of air pollution. Soon after came the internal combustion engine which worked harder and polluted even more.
Not until the early 1900’s was there a trend away from the internal combustion engine. The electric vehicle was “first introduced in England in 1911, for the purpose of urban delivery of milk to households all over the country. The new electric vehicle replaced the outdated horse and cart, h.
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. kground to our EV Project” Alternate Power Products Asia Ltd.
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Essay on Fossil Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emission - Fuel cells powered by hydrogen represent the latest technology in the push to reduce fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission. The internal combustion engine’s design limitations have been pushed to their limits and fuel economy has been maxed out. While a shift in consumer preference to smaller and more fuel efficient automobiles would decrease consumption and emissions, the economic model alone will not prompt such a change. The hydrogen fuel cell’s new technology calls for a radical change in design approaches that will test the automakers that choose to mass-produce this technology. [tags: hydrogen, fuel cells, environment]
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Electrical Engineering: Past and Future Essay - Introduction The Bureau of Labor Statistics defines an electrical engineer as someone that “designs, develops, tests, and supervises the manufacturing of electrical equipment such as electric motors, radar and navigation systems, communications systems, or power generation equipment.” Electrical engineers work with but are not limited to electricity, electronics and electromagnetism (What Do Electrical Engineers Do?). These engineers can work in labs, offices or on the floor of some major industries. [tags: politics, electrical engeneering]
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Greenwashing: Misleading Claims of Environmental Benefits Essay - Companies are becoming more competitive and consumers are concerned on the environmental problems. The organisations are attracting consumers with promotions of Green technology and services and companies claiming it to be green. In the last several years, there are companies issuing Green claims and accused of Greenwashing. The green products and Greenwash products are labeled to be eco-friendly while they are not and overstatement of high ratings of environmental claims. This also causes confusion and difficult to determine genuine eco-friendly products from a Greenwashing product. [tags: misleading claims, environmental benefits]
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I am a Product of My Environment
The development of each individual is highly dependent on his/her environment. Naturally, I am not an exception and the formation of my personality and my identity was, to a significant extent, influenced by my environment. At the same time, I would like to underline that, in spite of the significant impact of our environment, we are still different that is basically determined by psychological as well as physiological peculiarities of each individual. On the other hand, I can easily identify myself with my community that means that I perceive myself as a member of the particular socio-cultural group, which values I share and which social, moral, and cultural norms I accept and obey to.
On analyzing my development, I should emphasize the fact that, at different stages of my development, which basically correspond to the stages defined by Vygotsky, the impact of my environment was different. To put it more precisely, it is rather the changes in my environment and its significance for me that influenced my personality but not the extent to which my environment influenced me. What is meant here is the fact that at the beginning, at first stages of my development, my parents played the most important role in my life. In fact, I should admit that I idealized them and I really wanted to be similar to them in my adult life. As I started to attend school my teachers enlarged the circle of meaningful adults that influenced my personal views, beliefs, and behavior. As the matter of fact, it is my parents and my teachers, as well as other adults that set rules and defined my values, standards behavior, etc. until the age of ten.
However, as I entered the adolescent stage, my personal development was consistently affected by physiological changes that occurred to me. At this stage, my peers became significantly more important for me, while my parents as well as teachers had lost their authority. In such a way, being accepted by my peers and gaining their respect practically became the sense of my life at the epoch.
Nevertheless, as I grew older, I have started to search more consistent objectives in my life. Now, I would say that I have started to search myself and my place in this life and in the community I live in. Eventually, I understood that my peers are important but I cannot sacrifice myself for their sake, neither I can change my personality, change my personal beliefs only because they are different from those of my peers. As a result, I started to develop my own set of values, principles, in accordance to which I could live and feel good.
At the same time, I still had and have the need to be useful for other people. In fact, it seems that my life is purposeless if other people do not even notice that I exist in this world. This is why, even at the present moment, I cannot distance from my socio-cultural environment. Even though I understand that I am unique and different from others, but I still remain one of them, a person that has similar philosophy, views, and beliefs as the majority of people that live in the hood.
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• Today organizations operate in a dynamic environment which changes rapidly.
• Organizational Environment is defined as a “set of conditions Social, Legal, Economical, Political or Institutional that are uncontrollable in nature and affects the functioning of organization”.
Business Environment has two components:
1. Internal Environment (Micro environment)
2. External Environment (Macro environment)
Mission / Objectives
Internal Power Relationship
Physical Assets & facilities
•The Micro environment consists of different types of stakeholders customers, employees, suppliers, marketing intermediaries, competitors.
• It is also known as the Task Environment and Operating Environment and has a direct bearing on the operations of the firm. Changes in the micro environment will directly affect the firm’s activities.
•Internal environment is defined as the events and trends inside an organization that affect management, employees, and organizational culture.
Factors in the Internal Environment
• The macro environment consists of factors which are beyond the control of the business.
The two kinds of external environments influence organizations are
• General environment – Consists of the economy and the
technological, socio-cultural, political/legal trends that indirectly affect all organizations.
• Changes in any sector of the general environment eventually affect most organizations.
• Refers to the influence exerted by the three political institutions ie. legislature, executive and judiciary in shaping, directing, developing and controlling business activities.
• The constitution of a country
• Political Organization
• Political Stability
• Image of the country and its leaders
• Foreign Policy
• Laws governing business
• Flexibility and adaptability of laws
• The Judicial System
Money and Capital Markets
Per capita and national income
New Economic Policy
The global environment refers to those factors which are relevant to business, such as the WTO principles and agreements; other
international conventions/ treaties / agreements / sentiments in other countries etc.
E.g. hike in crude oil prices has a global impact etc.
• World is becoming one market
• Improving quality
• Competition from MNCs
• Capital and technology transfers
• Deciding which markets to enter and what products to manufacture • Adjusting the management process
• Refers to the demographic characteristics, general behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of people in a particular society.
Socio-cultural changes and trends influence organizations in two important ways
Changes in demographic characteristics such as the number of people with particular skills or the growth/decline in particular population segments (marital status, age, gender, ethnicity)
Changes in behavior, attitudes and beliefs also affect the demand for a business’s product and services.
• Culture creates people
• Culture and globalization
• Culture determines people’s attitude to business and work. • Caste system
• Spirit of collectivism
• Ethics in business
• Social responsibility
• Social audit
• Technology is the knowledge, tools, techniques used to transform inputs (raw materials, information) into outputs (products and services)
• Changes in the technology can help companies to provide better products and services or produce their products more efficiently.
• Moreover technological changes can benefit and also threaten a business.
• Leads to system complexity
• Demand for capital
For example, over- the-counter medications have traditionally been available in either pill or liquid form. Now the new technology is edible film, like the medicines that dissolves instantly.
Specific environment – consists of the customers, competitors,
suppliers, industry regulations and advocacy groups that are unique to an industry and directly affect how a company does business.
E.g. 3 After more than 20 million unsafe toys, many of them produced in Chinese factories, were recalled, the toy industry spent $200 million to increase safety of its products, but because the change came from the specific environment only toy manufacturers and retailers were affected.
• Companies cannot exist without customer support.
• Monitoring customer’s changing wants and needs is critical to business success
• Competitors are companies in
the same industry that sell
similar products or services.
• Often the difference between business success and failure comes down to whether your company is doing a better job of
satisfying customers wants and needs than the competition.
• suppliers are companies that provide material, human, financial, and informational resources to other companies.
• A key factor influencing the impact and quality of the relationship between companies and their suppliers is how dependent they are on each other.
• The relationship between the supplier and the company is important because relationship with a strong supplier in the market is a competitive advantage to the company.
Industry Regulation Component
• The industry regulation component consists of regulations the rules that govern the practices and procedures of specific
industries, businesses, and professions.
• Regulatory agencies affect businesses by creating and enforcing rules and regulations to protect customers, workers, or society as a whole.
• For example, the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Food and Drug Administration regulate the safety of seafood through the science-based Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points Program.
• Advocacy groups are groups of concerned citizens who band together to try to influence the business practices of specific industries, businesses, and professions.
• For example, environmental advocacy groups might try to get manufacturers to reduce pollution emissions.
•Strengths—internal to the unit; are a unit’s resources and capabilities that can be used as a basis for developing a competitive advantage; strength should be realistic and not modest
Your list of strengths should be able to answer:
•What are the unit’s advantages?
•What relevant resources do you have access to?
•What do other people see as your strengths?
•Examples: good reputation among customers, resources, assets, people, experience, knowledge, data, capabilities, competitive advantages, resources, assets, people (experience, knowledge) marketing, quality, location, accreditations qualifications, certifications, processes/systems
•Weaknesses—internal force that could serve as a barrier to maintain or achieve a competitive advantage; a limitation, fault or defect of the unit;
•It should be truthful so that they may be overcome as quickly as possible
Your list of weaknesses should be able to answer:
•What can be improved?
•What is done poorly?
•What should be avoided?
•What are you doing as an organization that you feel could be done more effectively/efficiently?
•Examples: gaps in capabilities, financial, deadlines, morale •lack of competitive
•Opportunities—any favorable situation present now or in the future in the external environment.
Examples: unfulfilled customer need, arrival of new technologies, loosening of regulations, global influences, economic boom, demographic shift
•Where are the good opportunities facing you?
•What are the interesting trends you are aware of?
•Think of: market developments; competitor; vulnerabilities; industry/ lifestyle trends;; geographical; partnerships
•External force that could inhibit the maintenance or attainment of a competitive advantage; any unfavorable situation in the external environment that is potentially damaging now or in the future.
•Examples: shifts in consumer tastes, new regulations, political or legislative effects, environmental effects, new technology, loss of key staff, economic downturn, demographic shifts, competitor intent; market demands; sustaining internal capability; insurmountable weaknesses; financial backing
Your list of threats should be able to answer:
•What obstacles do you face?
•What is your competition doing?
•Are the required specifications for your job/services changing?
•Is changing technology threatening your position?
•Do you have financial problems?
•Could any of your weaknesses seriously threaten your unit?
Every organization has a culture, depending on its strength, culture can have a significant influence on the attitudes and behaviors of organization members.
What is Organizational Culture?
Organizational Culture refers to a system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization from other organizations.
Seven primary characteristics capture the essence of an organization’s culture:
Innovation and risk taking. The degree to which employees are encouraged to be innovative and take risks.
Attention to detail. The degree to which employees are expected to exhibit precisions, analysis, and attention to detail.
Outcome orientation. The degree to which management focuses on results or outcomes rather than on the techniques and process used to achieve them
4. People orientation. The degree to which management decisions take into consideration the effect of outcomes on people within the organization.
5. Team orientation. The degree to which work activities are organized around teams rather than individuals.
6. Aggressiveness. The degree to which people are aggressive and competitive rather easy going.
7. Stability. The degree to which organizational activities emphasize maintaining the status quo in contrast to growth.
Do organizations have uniform cultures ?
• Organizational culture represents a common perception the organization’s members hold. We should expect, therefore, that individuals with different levels in the organization will tend to describe its culture in similar terms.
• But this does not mean, that there are no subcultures within any given culture.
• Most large organizations have a dominant culture and numerous sub cultures.
• A Dominant Culture expresses the core values shared by a majority of the organization’s members. When we talk about an organization’s culture we are referring to its dominant culture which gives an organization its distinct personality.
• Subcultures tend to develop in large organization to reflect common problems, situations, or experienced faced by groups of members in the same department or location.
Strong versus Weak Cultures
• If most employees have the same opinions about the organization’s mission and values, the culture is strong; if opinions vary widely, the culture is weak.
• In a strong culture, the organization’s core values are both intensely held
and widely shared.
• The more members who accept the core values and the greater their commitment, the stronger the culture and the greater its influence on members behavior because the high degree of sharing and intensity creates an internal climate of high behavioral control.
What Do Cultures Do ?
Culture has a boundary-defining role: it distinctions between one organization and others
It conveys a sense of identity for organizations members.
It facilitates the generation of commitment to something larger than self-interest.
It is a sense-making and control mechanism that guides and shapes employees’ attitudes and behavior.
It enhances the stability of the social system: culture is a glue that helps hold the organization together by providingappropriate standards for what employees should say and do.
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