Art criticism is the discussion or evaluation of visual art.
Art critics usually criticize art in the context of aesthetics or the theory of beauty. One of criticism's goals is the pursuit of a rational basis for art appreciation.
The variety of artistic movements has resulted in a division of art criticism into different disciplines, each using vastly different criteria for their judgements. The most common division in the field of criticism is between historical criticism and evaluation, a form of art history, and contemporary criticism of work by living artists.
Despite perceptions that art criticism is a much lower risk activity than making art, opinions of current art are always liable to drastic corrections with the passage of time. Critics of the past are often ridiculed for either favoring artists now derided (like the academic painters of the late 19th Century) or dismissing artists now venerated (like the early work of the Impressionists). Some art movements themselves were named disparagingly by critics, with the name later adopted as a sort of badge of honor by the artists of the style (e.g. Impressionism. Cubism ), the original negative meaning forgotten.Some critics are unable to adapt to new movements in art and allow their opinions to override their objectivity, resulting in inappropriately dated critique. John Ruskin famously compared one of James McNeill Whistler 's paintings, "Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket", to "flinging a pot of paint in the public's face".
Artists have often had an uneasy relationship with their critics. Artists usually need positive opinions from critics for their work to be viewed and purchased; unfortunately for the artists, only later generations may understand it.
Though critiques of art may have its origins in the origins of art itself, art criticism as a genre is credited to have acquired its modern form by the 18th C.
The first writer to acquire an individual reputation as an art critic in 18th C. France was La Font de Saint-Yenne who wrote about the Salon of 1737 and wrote primarily to entertain while including anti-monarchist rhetoric in his prose.
The 18th C. French writer Denis Diderot is usually credited with the invention of the modern medium of art criticism. Diderot's "The Salon of 1765" was one of the first real attempts to capture art in words. According to art historian Thomas E. Crow. "When Diderot took up art criticism it was on the heels of the first generation of professional writers who made it their business to offer descriptions and judgments of contemporary painting and sculpture. The demand for such commentary was a product of the similarly novel institution of regular, free, public exhibitions of the latest art." [Published in "Diderot on Art I", p.x]
A dominating figure in 19th century art criticism was French poet Charles Baudelaire. whose first published work was his art review "Salon of 1845", which attracted immediate attention for its boldness. Many of his critical opinions were novel in their time, including his championing of Delacroix and Courbet. When Manet 's famous Olympia (1865), a portrait of a nude courtesan, provoked a scandal for its blatant realism, Baudelaire worked privately to support his friend.
Bloomsbury Group members Roger Fry and Clive Bell were notable English pre-war art critics. Fry introduced post-impressionism to the country, and Bell was one of the founders of the formalist approach to art. Herbert Read championed modern British artists such as Paul Nash. Ben Nicholson. Henry Moore and Barbara Hepworth.
In the U.S, Clement Greenberg first made his name as an art critic with his essay " Avant-Garde and Kitsch ", first published in the journal Partisan Review in 1939.
As in the case of Baudelaire in the 19th century, the poet-as-critic phenomenon appears once again in the 20th, when French poet Apollinaire becomes the champion of cubism. Later, French writer and hero of the Resistance André Malraux writes extensively on art, going well beyond the limits of his native Europe. Interestingly, his conviction that the vanguard in Latin America lay in Mexican muralism ( Orozco. Rivera and Siqueiros ) changes after his trip to Buenos Aires in 1958. After visiting the studios of several Argentine artists in the company of the young Director of the Museum of Modern Art of Buenos Aires Rafael Squirru. Malraux declares the new vanguard to lie in Argentina 's new artistic movements. Worthy of note is the fact that Squirru, a poet-critic of renown himself who became Cultural Director of the OAS in Washington D.C. during the Sixties, was the last to interview the well-nigh forgotten Edward Hopper before his death, creating a revival [Levin on Hopper, "An intimate biography" ] which consecrated the American artist once and for all time.
In the 1940s there were not only few galleries ( The Art of This Century ) but also few critics who were willing to follow the work of the New York Vanguard.There were also a few artists with a literary background, among them Robert Motherwell and Barnett Newman who functioned as critics as well.
As surprising as it may be, while New York and the world were unfamiliar with the New York avant-garde. by the late 1940s most of the artists who have become household names today had their well established patron critics: Clement Greenberg advocated Jackson Pollock and the Color field painters like Clyfford Still. Mark Rothko. Barnett Newman. Adolph Gottlieb and Hans Hofmann. Harold Rosenberg seemed to prefer the action painters like Willem de Kooning and Franz Kline. Thomas B. Hess. the managing editor of Art News, championed Willem de Kooning .
The new critics elevated their proteges by casting other artists as "followers" [Thomas B. Hess, "Willem de Kooning", George Braziller, Inc. New York, 1959 p.:13 ] or ignoring those who did not serve their promotional goal.
As an example, in 1958, Mark Tobey "became the first American painter since Whistler (1895) to win top prize at the Biennale of Venice. New York's two leading art magazines were not interested. Arts mentioned the historic event only in a news column and Art News (Managing editor: Thomas B. Hess) ignored it completely. The New York Times and Life printed feature articles." [William C. Seitz, [http://www.worldcatlibraries.org/oclc/5750568&referer=brief_results Mark Tobey by William C. Seitz, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1962. ] ]
Barnett Newman. a late member of the Uptown Group wrote catalogue forewords and reviews and by the late 1940s became an exhibiting artist at Betty Parsons Gallery. His first solo show was in 1948. Soon after his first exhibition, Barnett Newman remarked in one of the Artists' Session at Studio 35: "We are in the process of making the world, to a certain extent, in our own image." [Barnett Newman Selected Writings and Interviews, (ed.) by John P. O'Neill, pgs. 240-241, University of California Press, 1990 ] Utilizing his writing skills, Newman fought every step of the way to reinforce his newly established image as an artist and to promote his work. An example is his letter in April 9. 1955. "Letter to Sidney Janis: ---It is true that Rothko talks the fighter. He fights, however, to submit to the philistine world. My struggle against bourgeois society has involved the total rejection of it." [Barnett Newman Selected Writings Interviews, (ed.) by John P. O'Neill, p. 201, University of California Press, 1990. ]
Strangely the person thought to have had most to do with the promotion of this style was a New York Trotskyist, Clement Greenberg. As long time art critic for the Partisan Review and The Nation. he became an early and literate proponent of abstract expressionism. Artist Robert Motherwell. well heeled, joined Greenberg in promoting a style that fit the political climate and the intellectual rebelliousness of the era.
Clement Greenberg proclaimed Abstract Expressionism and Jackson Pollock in particular as the epitome of aesthetic value. It supported Pollock's work on formalistic grounds as simply the best painting of its day and the culmination of an art tradition going back via Cubism and Cézanne to Monet. in which painting became ever 'purer' and more concentrated in what was 'essential' to it, the making of marks on a flat surface. [Clement Greenberg, "Art and Culture Critical essays," ("The Crisis of the Easel Picture"), Beacon Press, 1961 pp.:154-157 ]
Jackson Pollock 's work has always polarised critics.
Harold Rosenberg spoke of the transformation of painting into an existential drama in Pollock's work, in which "what was to go on the canvas was not a picture but an event". "The big moment came when it was decided to paint 'just to paint'. The gesture on the canvas was a gesture of liberation from value--political, aesthetic, moral." [Harold Rosenberg, "The Tradition of the New," Chapter 2, "The American Action Painter", pp.:23-39 ]
One of the most vocal critics of Abstract expressionism at the time was New York Times art critic John Canaday. Meyer Shapiro. and Leo Steinberg were also important art historians of the post-war era who voiced support for Abstract expressionism. During the early to mid sixties younger art critics Michael Fried. Rosalind Krauss and Robert Hughes (critic) added considerable insights into the critical dialectic that continues to grow around Abstract expressionism.
Other people, such as British comedian/satirist Craig Brown. have been astonished that decorative 'wallpaper', essentially brainless, could gain such a position in art history alongside Giotto. Titian and Velázquez .
Art critics today work not only in print media-in specialist art magazines as well as newspapers, but also on the internet. on TV and on radio, and in museums and galleries. Many are also employed in Universities or as art educators for museums. Art critics curate exhibitions and are frequently employed to write exhibition catalogues. Art critics have their own organisation, a UNESCO non-governmental organisation, called the International Association of Art Critics which has around 76 national sections and a political non-aligned section for refugees and exiles [http://www.aica-int.org/ ] .
Since in the early 21st century, art blogs have cropped up around the world to add their voices to the art world. Some notable blogs include ArtCal, Art Fag City, Bloggy, James Wagner, Fallon and Rosof, CultureGrrl, Personism and Beauty Flow Magazine.
* Art history
* Art critic
* [http://x-traonline.org/past_articles.php?articleID=143 The Myth of Criticism in the 1980s ] "by Howard Singerman in" X-TRA. Contemporary Art Quarterly
* For contemporary examples of art criticism see Documenta 12 magazines
* [http://arts.guardian.co.uk/youngcritics/story/0,,2289650,00.html Our critics' advice ] - The Guardian July 8 2008.
**In this article Adrian Searle gives advice to ambitious, young, would-be art critics.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010 .
The Wars, written by Timothy Findley, is a story about World War I, and consists of many shocking images passed over to the reader. Findley accomplishes to pull the reader into the narrative itself, so that the reader manages to feel an impact upon him/her-self about what is read. If it was not for this specific skill, or can also be seen as a specific genre, the novel would not have been as successful as it is now. Also, something that helps the book be so triumphant, there is the fact that Findley never overwhelms the reader with too many gruesome details about the World War I. Instead, he breaks the book down to help the reader calm down from everything that is happening. Throughout the essay, there is going to be some commenting on a text titled "The Literature of World War One for Young Adults", by Dana McFarland, B.A.,
M.A. M.L.I.S. This text is going to be supported by and partly criticized by with the help of many examples from The Wars, some examples from All Quiet On The Western Front and by using my own knowledge.
There have been many, many books written about World War I which have become quite successful. There have also been a number of books, which were not of the standard need to become printed out. Just by using that statement, would actually rule out the fact that "The literature that has emerged as a consequence of World War One makes a strong case for historical fiction both as good and as a means of investigating the historical period." (McFarland) Although, it can be argued that the books that did not make it to the publishing company are ruled out of this section. If so, then by using knowledge gained by reading All Quiet On The Western Front by Erich Maria Remarque and The Wars by Timothy Findley, that statement is true. "It's unendurable. It is the moaning of the world, it is the martyred creation, wild with anguish, filled with terror, and groaning." (Remarque, P62) "The ammonia in their urine would turn the chlorine into harmless crystals that could not be breathed." (Findley, P, 141) These help support the fact that novels about World War I can not only be well in detail and good literature, but they are also used "as means of investigating the historical period" (McFarland) The first quote shows great description within the text. This is good enough that the reader can also hear what it could sound like. This is great, because it also helps the reader understand what was actually going on at that time. The second quote gives the reader a picture of chlorine turning into crystals right in front of their eyes, and also gives that the horrific information about the gas being used throughout the war.
There is a great deal that can be used within a war novel to help understand what war was really like and to help younger students with some historical content, but I do not completely agree that it is better. "An effective narrative, which captures and holds one's interest, conveys powerfully the life and society of another time. The reader encounters a believable world with which to contrast her/his own. For a younger reader, this serves the useful purpose of introducing historical perspective." (McFarland) A novel like The Wars can be very helpful in certain terms to do with historical content. This is seen by the fact that although Findley did not take part of the World War I, the content is quite straight to the point and gives the reader its message. "And he said that after a while you saw them everywhere [dead bodies] and you sort of accepted it. But the acceptance made him mad and he said this marvelous thing: I still maintain that an ordinary human being has a right to be horrified by a mangled body seen on an afternoon walk." (Findley, P 114) This gives the reader one idea about what it was like to be stood there on the battlefield. The reader realizes, if that has not jet happened at this point, what kind of impact war had upon the people who fought. The part on which I do not agree that war novels are good for young adults is because they often tend to play with the readers emotions and also usually give only one perspective of the war. "His assailants, who he'd thought were crazies, had been his fellow soldiers. Maybe even his brother officers. He'd never know. He never saw their faces." (Findley, P 193) This is just one of the many examples which make the reader feel sorry for Robert Ross. Because the reader feels sorrow, there is more chance that the reader believes everything that is being said by or about him, although there is more that one perspective to the whole of World War I.
Throughout the world, there have been a number of war novels that have been written. But, even if many war novels are about the same thing, they would mostly differ from each other. One difference is that there can be "War Novels" and there can be "Good War Novels." What exactly is the difference? To help understand, the following quote will be partly supported. "If a novel is poor history, it will not be a good novel. Good history, however, will not necessarily produce good art. Every work of history, including every historical novel, has an ideological message. But the novel is above all else an art form concerned with people as they interact with each other and as they develop and change." (McFarland) The quote basically means that a "poor war novel" has a message behind it, but every "good war novel" has a message behind it, and also shows how people "interact with each other". I agree to a certain extent. That can be accepted as a meaning of a "poor war novel", but I do not agree completely about the "good war novel". A "good war novel" must have one or multiple internal messages, the impact upon the characters must be shown how they interact to one another, but also the novel must appeal to the reader. Without those three characteristics, then the book cannot be called a "good war novel". This passage from The Wars is a great example of a "good war novel". "I am alive in everything I touch. Touch these pages and you have me in your fingertips. We survive in one another. Everything lives forever. Believe it. Nothing dies." (Findley, P 151) This section a part of the letter Rodwell had written for his daughter. The section can be connected to all three meanings. It has reference to an internal message given to the reader. That would be that no matter what happens throughout the war, many things can happen, but one would never forget about ones family. There is a mentioning upon the interacting of the character with another character. This interaction is significant, because he talks about life, although he ended up killing himself. The connection with the reader also occurs at this point. Because of the carefully chosen words used, the reader gets a feeling that there is life within the very paper that he/she is holding within his/her hands.
A good novel would in many times tries to pull the reader within the book, so that the reader can indirectly become involved within the novel itself. This idea has also been touched upon within the article. "When the reader becomes lost in a book it seems as id the characters are in the room with him. It is at this point that the reader feels as if he is on the scene while history is being made." (McFarland) I believe that this is accomplished with two novels that I have read. "All quiet on the Western Front." (Remarque, P 291) This passage, although short, is full of information. It puts the reader in such a position, that everything that has been read up until that point is now placed around the reader as he/she tries to feel what the atmosphere was like when everything was quiet. "The dark was pitted with holes and he kept falling down. He fell down once and put his hand in someone's face. He apologized - even though he knew the man was dead."(Findley, P 127) This part of the text puts the reader into a weird situation. The scene is shocking, so shocking that the reader imagines it happening. He/She sees him/her-self with Robert falling into the hole and seeing him go through all of this.
The article mentions The Wars by Timothy Findley, and gives a very brief summary of what the book is about. That summary is to every extent true, and it also indirectly states as to why the book is called The Wars and not The War. "When we see Robert at home, we realize that his family life is a microscopic war." (McFarland) This statement is true, and would be enough for any reader to understand why the title of the book is plural. There are also many different passages from The Wars that support it. "He hated the way she used his childhood - everyone's childhood as a weapon." (Findley, P22) This section gives the reader a good understanding of what the mother of Robert Ross is really like towards him and others. She does not respect him or his feelings, and she never shows any nice feelings towards Robert. "Robert?" "Yes, Rowena?" "Will you stay with me forever?" "Yes Rowena." "Can the rabbits stay forever, too?" "Yes Rowena." (Findley, P 21) Robert promised to Rowena that the rabbits would stay in the hutches forever. Robert was not able to keep his promise because his mother demands for them to be killed. Although Rowena wished for them to stay, her mother disobeys what she wanted. This shows great disrespect to not only again Robert, but also to her dead daughter Rowena. Robert also promised that he would protect Rowena, which he was not able to accomplish in doing because she dies at an early age. This is yet another section within the story that shows the reader that Robert is not only fighting against his mother but also against himself.
The Art of War Analysis
The Art of War was one of our world’s first written documents that dealt with militaristic strategies and advancements. The book was written by a Chinese military leader named Sun Tzu, who commanded and analyzed his military over the Warring States Period of China. Sun Tzu produced this text in an attempt to provide future military advantages for the Chinese, but The Art of War’s ideas eventually spread to neighboring civilizations and empires. The ideas and facts expressed in Sun Tzu’s writings proved effective as military groups became more powerful through the writings. Throughout The Art of War, Sun Tzu expressed his views and tactics primarily in moral ethics, intelligence, environmental tactics, and leadership.
While analyzing the text, it was clear that one of Sun Tzu’s main points was to express moral ethics. Sun Tzu speaks of the five constant factors that govern the art of war, and the first constant that he states is the “moral law”. Sun Tzu believes that the moral law is unlike any of the other Chinese moral aspects and will lead a military to new advancements. The Art of War states, “The moral law causes the people to be in a complete accord with their ruler, so that they will follow him regardless of their lives, undismayed by any danger.” (p. #1) This quote makes one believe that there will be no danger under one’s ruler, and they will be led to a safe victory. Putting all of one’s trust in a leader is very brave and daring, but this moral law seemed to bring the military together with more trust and bondage. Moral ethics was an important aspect of The Art of War because it described new ways of viewing warfare and trusting those around you.
The next topic that is very important in Sun Tzu’s writing is the intelligence of people within warfare. When speaking about intelligence, Sun Tzu describes how it can be used as a
military strategy, such as deception. Sun Tzu states, “A military operation involves deception.
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The Art of War - a brief analysis The Art of War is one of the oldest and most successful books on military strategy. It composed of 13 chapters, each of which is based on philosophy, used the idea of philosophy to observe the war . discussed and find out the general rule of war . Though it is very short, it devoted to one aspect of warfare. The Art of War has a perfect logic system. These 13 chapters, no matter more or less will influence the main idea. Just like the first chapter is Laying Plans, it explores the five fundamental factors and seven elements that define a successful outcome. The second chapter is Waging War . this part is not like the warfare that we think like today, it explains how to understand the economy of war and how success requires making the winning play, which in turn, requires limiting the cost of competition and conflict. After the sufficient preparation, what we need is stratagem, so there are Attack by Stratagem, Tactical Dispositions, Energy, Weak Points and Strong, Maneuvering and Variation of Tactics chapters, all of them are focus on essentials of warfare. In the end of the book, it talks about The Army on the March, Terrain, The Nine Situations, The Attack by Fire and The Use of Spies, each of them is specific stratagem. As a military strategy book, it’s full of sagacious idea.
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