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Hagdan Hagdang Palayan Descriptive Essay

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Banaue Rice Terraces

Banaue Rice Terraces

Infobox World Heritage Site
WHS = Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras

State Party = PHI
Type = Cultural
Criteria = iii, iv, v
ID = 722
Region = Asia-Pacific
Year = 1995
Session = 19th
Danger = 2001-
Link = http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/722

The Banaue Rice Terraces ( _tl. Hagdan-hagdang Palayan ng Banaue ) are 2000-year old terrace s that were carved into the mountains of Ifugao in the Philippines by ancestors of the Batad indigenous people. The Rice Terraces are commonly referred to by Filipinos as the " Eighth Wonder of the World ". [ [http://www.filipinasoul.com/the-best-of-the-philippines-its-natural-wonders/ filipinasoul.com, ‘The Best’ of the Philippines - its natural wonders ] ] [ [http://www.nscb.gov.ph/rucar/fnf_ifugao.htm nscb.gov.ph, FACTS & FIGURES, Ifugao province ] ] [ [http://www.visitbanaue.com/main.php?cat=1&subcatid1=10&subcatid2=0, About Banaue > Tourist Attractions ] ] It is commonly thought that the terraces were built with minimal equipment, largely by hand. The terraces are located approximately 1500 meters (5000 ft) above sea level and cover 10,360 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles) of mountainside. They are fed by an ancient irrigation system from the rainforests above the terraces. It is said that if the steps are put end to end it would encircle half the globe. [ [http://www.tourism.gov.ph/explore_phil/place_details.asp?content=famousefor&province=74 Department of Tourism: Ifugao Province ]. Accessed September 04, 2008. ]

The Banaue terraces are part of the Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras. ancient sprawling man-made structures from 2,000 to 6,000 years old. They are found in the provinces of Apayao. Benguet. Mountain Province and Ifugao. and are a UNESCO World Heritage Site .

Locals to this day still tend to the rice and vegetables on the terraces, although more and more younger Ifugaos do not find farming appealing, often opting for the more lucrative hospitality industry generated by the Rice TerracesFact|date=July 2007. The result is the gradual erosion of the characteristic "steps", which need constant reconstruction and care.

* [http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/722 UNESCO World Heritage Site Link ]
* [http://www.lakwatsero.com/2008/09/29/bangaan-ifugao/ The Rice Terraces of Bangaan, Ifugao ]

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Banaue, Ifugao — Banaue is a 4th class municipality in the province of Ifugao, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 20,563 people in 3,952 households. It is widely known as the site of the Banaue Rice Terraces.Banaue Rice… … Wikipedia

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Hagdan-hagdang Palayan ng Banawe

Hagdan-hagdang Palayan ng Banawe Connected to: Mula sa Wikipediang Tagalog, ang malayang ensiklopedya

Ang Hagdan-hagdang Palayan ng Banawe (Ingles. Banaue Rice Terraces ) ay mga 2000-taong gulang na mga hagdanang-taniman na nililok sa mga bulubundukin ng Ifugao sa Pilipinas ng mga ninuno ng mga katutubong mamamayanang Batad. Karaniwang tinatawag ito ng mga Pilipino bilang "Ikawalong Kahangahangang Pook sa Mundo". [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Tinatawag itong payew sa katutubong pananalita sa Ifugao .

Tanawin ng Hagdan-hagdang Palayan ng Banawe

Mga sanggunian Kawing panlabas
  • UNESCO World Heritage Site
  • Ifugao Rice Terraces - Photographs

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User: Mitz1492 - Wikipilipinas: The Hip n Free Philippine Encyclopedia


From Wikipilipinas: The Hip 'n Free Philippine Encyclopedia

Destination. Philippines

"Attention all passengers of Philippine Airlines Flight 3128, please fasten your seatbelts and prepare for the take off! May you enjoy the Land of the Orient Pearl! Thank you!" See. hear. witness. feel. taste. and be amazed. Philippines lies in the south part of the eastern Pacific and is the home of heaven on earth! Flourished with its bountiful sceneries, this country promises not only beauty and wonders but also values and a colorful history. Standing for almost millions of years ago, the Banaue Rice Terraces or "Hagdan-Hagdang Palayan" built by the Ifugaos still leaves a lasting impression of amazement and awe to every individual. A impression that would serve as an inspiration for all to strive their goals in the "stairways of success." Providing the Mindanao's electricity through the water energy is Ma. Cristina Falls located in Iligan City. This captivating flow of water powers up most of the towns, cities and municipalities in Mindanao while giving refreshing mist of clean water to Iliganons. The perfectly cone shape Mayon and the world renowned Mt. Pinatubo in Albay that provide a fertile soil for agriculture, are also proofs of God's love for humanity. "Behind every success lies all the trials and defeats." Like most of the Asian countries, Philippines has also been colonized by three major influential countries - Spain, USA and Japan. In its defeats sprung the bloodstream of people like Jose Rizal, Andres Bonifacio, Apolinario Mabini, Lapu-lapu and many others who fought and died for the country's freedom. Its history remarks its past in the lands where blood was shed that calls the attention of curious historians. Philippines is also the name of great values expressed by its people. Filipinos render much attention and hospitality to their visitors. They provide extra care to the comfort and convenient of their guests. Regardless of the financial status, they still find ways to make the stay of their visitors unforgettable and worthy to be visited again with. Filipinos also show great respect especially to the elderly ones. Saying "po" and "opo" and kissing or blessing the hands if the elders are some of their ways to show respect. These are just some of the qualities that showcases the Philippines as a whole! There are still lots of characteristicswaiting to be discovered and experienced personally by you! As the saying goes, "The heart sees what the eyes can't. What is essential is invisible to the human eye."

Name: Mitchelle Pradilla Section: III - Avogadro Subject: English III Subject Teacher: Mrs. Gimma De Chavez School: Agusan National High School - Science & Technology Oriented High School (ANHS - STOHS) School Address: A.D. Curato Street, Butuan City, Philippines

Untitled Document

This depicts three Philippine Patriots. Jose Abad Santos (1886 - 1942), Vicente Lim (1888 - 1945) and Josefa Llanes Escoda (1898 - 1945).

Jose Abad Santos became the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in 1941. He was captured and tortured by the Japanese. He would not renounce his allegiance to the USA and so was shot and killed. Vicente Lim was a Philippine General, a hero, martyr and the first Filipino graduate of west Point. Jose Llanes Escoda was the founder of the Philippine Girl Scouts.

This shows scenes of 'Hagdan-Hagdang Palayan ng Banawe', the Banaue Rice Terraces, considred the eight wonder of the world. The rice terraces were said to have existed for the last two thousand years.

'Manununggul' which is a terra cotta jar, three thousand years old and considered one of the finest pieces of Asian art. The figurines are sold sailing a spirit boat into the next world.

Langgal is sometimes called Ranggar by the Maranaos in the South. It is a muslim place of worship.

These three vignettes projects a new cultural image of the greatness of the Filipino people here and abroad.

Banaue Rice Terraces

Hagdan-hagdang Palayan ng Banawe

1. Palay – Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima. As a grain, it is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in Asia. It is the agricultural commodity with the worldwide production, after sugarcane and maize, according to 2012 FAOSTAT data. Wild rice, from which the crop was developed, may have its native range in Australia. Chinese legends attribute the domestication of rice to Shennong, inventor of Chinese agriculture. Genetic evidence has shown that rice originates in the Pearl River valley region of Ancient China. Previously, archaeological evidence had suggested that rice was domesticated in the Yangtze River region in China. From East Asia, rice was spread to Southeast and South Asia. Rice was introduced to Europe through European colonization. Culinary preferences tend to vary regionally. In some areas such as Spain, there is a preference for softer and stickier varieties. The plant can grow to 1 -- 1.8 m tall, occasionally more depending on the variety and soil fertility. It has long, slender leaves 50–100 cm long and 2–2.5 cm broad. The wind-pollinated flowers are produced in a branched arching to pendulous inflorescence 30 -- 50 cm long. The edible seed is a grain 5–12 mm long and 2–3 mm thick.

Palay – A mixture of brown, white, and red indica rice, also containing wild rice, Zizania species
Palay – Oryza sativa with small wind-pollinated flowers
Palay – Cooked brown rice from Bhutan
Palay – Rice can come in many shapes, colours and sizes. Photo by the IRRI.

2. Ifugao – Ifugao is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. It borders Benguet to the west, Mountain Province to the north, Isabela to the east, Nueva Vizcaya to the south. The Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras and Banaue Rice Terraces are the main tourist attractions in the province. These terraces were hand-carved 2,000 years ago to plant rice. In 1995, they were declared as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Ifugao is named after the i-pugo, which translates to people of the hill. The state have built massive rice terraces that would be a symbol of the province in later time. There were no monarchs in the state. The state consisted of various subgroups which had traditions. Conflicts among the Ifugao people were resolved in the most peaceful way possible. Unlike most of the highland plutocracies in the Cordilleras at the time, the Plutocracy of Ifugao had the least conflict with lowland Ilokanos. Kiangan was known as Hungduan as the epicenter of its culture. In 1891, the Spanish government established Quiangan for the Ifugao area. The Spanish occupation in the province ended with the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution. Ifugao and Kalinga-Apayao were placed under the jurisdiction of the Cagayan Valley region.

Ifugao – The Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Ifugao – A traditional house in Ifugao.
Ifugao – A village in the Batad rice terraces

3. Pilipinas – The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean. It consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly to south: Luzon, Visayas, Mindanao. The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. The Philippines has a population of approximately 100 million. It is the 12th most populated country in the world. As of 2013, approximately million additional Filipinos lived overseas, comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants. They were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Islamic states occurred. Then, various nations were established under the rule of Datus, Rajahs, Sultans or Lakans. The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. In 1565, the first Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established. The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years.

Pilipinas – King Philip II of Spain.
Pilipinas – Flag
Pilipinas – Tabon Cave and its carvings.
Pilipinas – The Banaue Rice Terraces where Ifugao/Igorot utilized terrace farming in the steep mountainous regions of northern Philippines over 2000 years ago.

4. Batad – Sorghum is a genus of plants in the grass family. One species is grown for grain, while many others intentionally cultivated or allowed to grow naturally, in pasture lands. The plants are naturalized in many places. Sorghum is in the tribe Andropogoneae. Most varieties are especially important in arid regions, where the grain is one of the staples for poor and rural people. These varieties form important components of pastures in tropical regions. S. bicolor is the fifth-most important cereal crop grown in the world. Some species of sorghum can contain levels of hydrogen cyanide, hordenine, nitrates lethal in the early stages of the plants' growth. When stressed by heat, plants can also contain toxic levels of cyanide and/or nitrates at later stages in growth. Johnson grass, is classified as an invasive species in the US by the Department of Agriculture. In a 100 amount, raw sorghum provides 329 calories, 72 % carbohydrates, 4 % fat and 11 % protein. Sorghum supplies essential nutrients in rich content, including protein, the B vitamins, niacin, thiamin and vitamin B6, several dietary minerals, including iron and manganese. Sorghum nutrient contents generally are similar to those of raw oats. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. ISBN 0-521-24711-X.

5. Pambansang Liwasang Ilog sa Ilalim ng Lupa ng Puerto Princesa – The river is also called Puerto Princesa Underground River. The national park is located on the western coast of the island. It is bordered to the east. The City Government of Puerto Princesa has managed the National Park since 1992. The entrance to the subterranean river is a short hike or ride from the town Sabang. Deeper areas of the underground river are almost impossible to explore due to deprivation. On November 2011, Puerto Princesa Underground River was provisionally chosen as one of the New7Wonders of Nature. This selection was officially confirmed on January 2012. The park has a limestone karst landscape. St. Pauls Underground River Cave contains an 8.2 km long underground section of the Cabayugan River. The cave includes major formations of several large chambers, including the 360-meter-long Italian's Chamber with approximate 2.5 million square meters volume. It is one of the largest cave rooms in the world. The lower portion of the river up to 6 km from the sea, is subject to tidal influences. Until the 2007 discovery of an underground river in Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula, the Puerto Princesa Subterranean River was reputed to be the world's longest underground river. The area also represents a habitat for biodiversity conservation.

Pambansang Liwasang Ilog sa Ilalim ng Lupa ng Puerto Princesa – Entrance to the Puerto Princesa Underground River
Pambansang Liwasang Ilog sa Ilalim ng Lupa ng Puerto Princesa – Stalactites in the Puerto Princesa Underground River
Pambansang Liwasang Ilog sa Ilalim ng Lupa ng Puerto Princesa – A tour boat inside the Underground River
Pambansang Liwasang Ilog sa Ilalim ng Lupa ng Puerto Princesa – The docking area to the Underground River

6. Bahurang Tubbataha – The Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park is a protected area of the Philippines located in the middle of Sulu Sea. The marine and bird sanctuary consists of two huge atolls and the smaller Jessie Beazley Reef covering a total area of 97,030 hectares. It is located 150 kilometres southeast of Puerto Princesa City, the capital of Palawan province. The uninhabited islands and reefs are part of the island municipality of Cagayancillo, Palawan, located roughly 130 kilometres to the northeast of the reef. The site is an excellent example of a pristine coral reef with a spectacular 100-m perpendicular wall, extensive lagoons and two coral islands. In 1999, Ramsar listed Tubbataha as one of the Wetlands of International Importance. In 2008, the reef was nominated at the New 7 Wonders of Nature. The area is under a grave threat due to overfishing and destructive fishing practices. The reefs also serve as a nesting ground for Hawksbill and Green sea turtles. The natural park is located near the middle of Sulu Sea, 150 kilometres southeast of Puerto Princesa City, Palawan covering a total of 97,030 hectares. The smaller Jessie Beazley Reef is located about 20 kilometres north of the two atolls. The Tubbataha Reef is situated on the Cagayan Ridge, composing of extinct underwater volcanoes. Being a true atoll structure, it is believed that the atolls of Tubbataha were formed thousands of years ago as fringing reefs and volcanic islands. This is based on Charles Darwin's theory that atolls are formed when a volcano erupts and afterwards an island is born. When the volcanoes became extinct and the islands subsided over a long time, only the corals remain, growing towards the sunlight.

Bahurang Tubbataha – Whitetip reef shark at Tubbataha
Bahurang Tubbataha – Tubbataha Reef as it appeared on the 2010 series of the ₱1000 bill
Bahurang Tubbataha – The USS Guardian aground in January 2013
Bahurang Tubbataha – The USS Guardian aground as seen from above.

7. Sistemang heograpikal ng mga koordinato – A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. Two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, elevation. To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a projection. Ptolemy credited him rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography measured latitude from the equator instead. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory as the zero-reference line. The Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while France and Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911. The pole is 90 ° N; the south pole is 90 ° S. The 0 parallel of latitude is designated the equator, the fundamental plane of all geographic coordinate systems. The equator divides the globe into Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The "longitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle west of a reference meridian to another meridian that passes through that point. All meridians are halves of great ellipses, which converge at south poles.

Sistemang heograpikal ng mga koordinato – Longitude lines are perpendicular and latitude lines are parallel to the equator.

8. Hagdan-hagdang Palayan ng Banawe – The Banaue Rice Terraces are 2,000-year-old terraces that were carved into the mountains of Ifugao in the Philippines by ancestors of the indigenous people. The Rice Terraces are commonly referred to as the "Eighth Wonder of the World". It is commonly thought that the terraces were built with minimal equipment, largely by hand. The terraces are located approximately 1500 metres above level. They are fed from the rainforests above the terraces. It is said that if the steps were put end to end, it would encircle half the globe. The result is the gradual erosion of the characteristic "steps", which need constant care. In 2010, a further problem was drought, with the terraces drying completely in March of that year. The Ifugao people have been its caretakers. The culture displays an elaborate array of celebrations linked with agricultural rites from rice cultivation to rice consumption. The season generally calls for thanksgiving feasts, while the concluding harvest rites called tango or tungul entails a strict taboo on any agricultural work. Partaking of the bayah, betel nut constitutes an indelible practise during the festivities. The Ifugao people practise traditional farming spending most of their labour at their forest lands while occasionally tending to root crop cultivation. The Ifugaos have also been known to culture edible shells, other vegetables which have been exhibited among Ifugaos for generations. Indigenous terracing technologies have been identified with the Ifugao's rice terraces such as their knowledge of water irrigation, stonework, earthwork and terrace maintenance.

Hagdan-hagdang Palayan ng Banawe – The Banaue Rice Terraces of Ifugao, Philippines
Hagdan-hagdang Palayan ng Banawe – A hut in a pre-Hispanic indigenous Ifugao village.
Hagdan-hagdang Palayan ng Banawe – Panoramic view of the Banaue Rice Terraces.
Hagdan-hagdang Palayan ng Banawe – A tourist taking a photograph of the terraces.