Community gardens provide fresh produce and plants as well as satisfying labor, neighborhood improvement, sense of community and connection to the environment. [ 2 ] They are publicly functioning in terms of ownership, access, and management, [ 3 ] as well as typically owned in trust by local governments or not for profit associations.
A city’s community gardens can be as diverse as its gardeners. Some grow only flowers, others are nurtured communally and their bounty shared, some have individual plots for personal use similar to the allotment gardens seen in England and other parts of Europe, while others have raised beds for disabled gardeners. [ 4 ]
Community gardens may help alleviate one effect of climate change, which is expected to cause a global decline in agricultural output, making fresh produce increasingly unaffordable. [ 5 ] Community gardens encourage an urban community's food security. allowing citizens to grow their own food or for others to donate what they have grown. [ 6 ] [ 7 ] Advocates say locally grown food decreases a community's reliance on fossil fuels for transport of food from large agricultural areas and reduces a society's overall use of fossil fuels to drive in agricultural machinery. [ 8 ]
Community gardens improve users’ health through increased fresh vegetable consumption and providing a venue for exercise. [ 9 ] The gardens also combat two forms of alienation that plague modern urban life, by bringing urban gardeners closer in touch with the source of their food, and by breaking down isolation by creating a social community. Community gardens provide other social benefits, such as the sharing of food production knowledge with the wider community and safer living spaces. [ 10 ] Active communities experience less crime and vandalism. [ 11 ]Definition
Unlike public parks, whether community gardens are open to the general public is dependent upon the lease agreements with the management body of the park and the community garden membership.
Open or closed-gate policies vary from garden to garden. There is no 'off the shelf model' of a community garden, however; they provide a green space in urban areas, along with opportunities for social gatherings, beautification, education and recreation.
However, in a key difference, community gardens are managed and maintained with the active participation of the gardeners themselves, rather than tended only by a professional staff. A second difference is food production: Unlike parks, where plantings are ornamental (or more recently ecological), community gardens often encourage food production by providing gardeners a place to grow vegetables and other crops. To facilitate this, a community garden may be divided into individual plots or tended in a communal fashion, depending on the size and quality of a garden and the members involved. [ 12 ]
As discussed below, "community garden" is the term favored in the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. One source and clearinghouse on community gardening information in North America is The American Community Gardening Association, [ 13 ] a non-profit membership organisation. Research is forming as to whether or not Community Gardening dictates a connotation with social change in the U.S.A. and how changing this term may benefit the effort to involve entire communities.
Community gardens vary widely throughout the world. In North America, community gardens range from familiar "victory garden" areas where people grow small plots of vegetables, to large "greening" projects to preserve natural areas, to tiny street beautification planters on urban street corners. There are even non-profits in many major cities that offer assistance to low-income families, children groups, and community organizations by helping them develop and grow their own gardens. In the UK and the rest of Europe, closely related "allotment gardens" can have dozens of plots, each measuring hundreds of square meters and rented by the same family for generations. In the developing world, commonly held land for small gardens is a familiar part of the landscape, even in urban areas, where they may function as mini-truck farms. [ citation needed ]
For all their diversity, however, most community gardens share at least four elements in common: [ citation needed ]
In many ways community gardens are re-enforcing basic human instincts that are slowly deteriorating due to the convenience of modern life (http://www.kens5.com/video/featured-videos/Micro-gardens-help-poor-learn-to-supplement-food-91546344.html )
Land for a community garden can be publicly or privately held. One strong tradition in American community gardening in urban areas is cleaning up abandoned vacant lots and turning them into productive gardens. Alternatively, community gardens can be seen as a health or recreational amenity and included in public parks, similar to ball fields or playgrounds. Historically, community gardens have also served to provide food during wartime or periods of economic depression. Access to land and security of land tenure remains a major challenge for community gardeners and their supporters throughout the world, since in most cases the gardeners themselves do not own or control the land directly. [ 14 ]
Some gardens are grown collectively, with everyone working together; others are split into clearly divided plots, each managed by a different gardener (or group or family). Many community gardens have both "common areas" with shared upkeep and individual/family plots. [ citation needed ]Organization
Two national surveys sponsored by the American Community Gardening Association in the late 1980s and mid-1990s, and other research, strongly support the observation that there is no "standard" community garden plot size, at least in the United States and Canada. Individual plot sizes vary widely depending on many factors, including location, land available for gardening, demand, physical and time limitations of the gardeners, among others. As a general rule, North American community garden plots tend to be smaller than European allotments. 6m × 6m (20 ft × 20 ft) is one common plot size (larger gardens in parks); 3m × 3m (10 ft × 10 ft) or 3m × 4.5 m (10 ft × 15 ft) is another (inner city gardens on small lots). [ citation needed ]Plant choice
While food production is central to many community and allotment gardens, not all have vegetables as a main focus. Restoration of natural areas and native plant gardens are also popular, as are "art" gardens. Many gardens have several different planting elements, and combine plots with such projects as small orchards, herbs and butterfly gardens. Individual plots can become "virtual" backyards, each highly diverse, creating a "quilt" of flowers, vegetables and folk art. [ citation needed ]
Gardeners may form a grassroots group to initiate the garden, such as the Green Guerrillas of New York City, [ 15 ] or a garden may be organized "top down" by a municipal agency. The Los Gatos, California-based non-profit Community Gardens as Appleseeds [ 16 ] offers free assistance in starting up new community gardens around the world.Group and leadership selection
The community gardening movement in North American prides itself on being inclusive, diverse, pro-democracy, and supportive of community involvement. Gardeners may be of any cultural background, young or old, new gardeners or seasoned growers, rich or poor. A garden may have only a few people active, or hundreds. [ citation needed ]
Finally, all community gardens have a structure. The organization depends in part on whether the garden is "top down" or "grassroots". There are many different organizational models in use for community gardens. Some elect boards in a democratic fashion, while others can be run by appointed officials. Some are managed by non-profit organizations. such as a community gardening association, a community association, a church, or other land-owner; others by a city's recreation or parks department, a school or University.Membership rules and fees
In most cases, gardeners are expected to pay annual dues to help with garden upkeep, and the organization must manage these fees. The tasks in a community garden are many, including upkeep, mulching paths, recruiting members, and fund raising. Rules and an 'operations manual' are both invaluable tools, and ideas for both are available at the ACGA. [ 17 ]Opposition
There are some [ weasel words ] who argue against the value of community gardens. Some [ weasel words ] suggest that it re-enforces racism, supporting only a select group of privileged peoples in privileged areas [ citation needed ] .
However, others [ who? ] suggest that it directly confronts racism, namely by bringing diverse people together for a cooperative purpose. [ 18 ]
Flanagan opposes gardens as an element of public school programs, rejecting the claim that they teach children what she believes are the fundamentals of education, and are essentially a trend for the privileged [ citation needed ]. However, gardens have been utilized as an effective means of science instruction, an avenue of civic engagement, and community development. [ 19 ]
In Australia, community gardens have both received support and met resistance from local governments and planners. In a few instances, community gardens have not been recognized as a community service, are seen as an undesirable use of available land, are considered inconsistent with local government aesthetics or are absent from local planning policy. [ 20 ]Overlap Between Gardens and Art
Through exploration of community gardens, the overlap between gardens and art become evident. What Nicolas Bourriaud calls "relational art," community gardens serve as "a set of artistic practices which take as their theoretical and practical point of departure the whole of human relations and their social context, rather than an independent and private space." [ 21 ]
Community gardening could also be seen as a form of participatory practice. [ 22 ]
The squatted social center Can Masdeu is home to one of the largest community gardens in Barcelona.
Most older Spaniards grew up in the countryside and moved to the city to find work. Strong family ties often keep them from retiring to the countryside, and so urban community gardens are in great demand. Potlucks and paellas are common, as well as regular meetings to manage the affairs of the garden. [ 23 ]United Kingdom
In the United Kingdom. community gardening is generally distinct from allotment gardening, though the distinction is sometimes blurred. Allotments are generally plots of land rented to individuals for their cultivation by local authorities or other public bodies—the upkeep of the land is usually the responsibility of the individual plot owners. Allotments tend (but not invariably) to be situated around the outskirts of built-up areas. Use of allotment areas as open space or play areas is generally discouraged. However, there are an increasing number of community-managed allotments, which may include allotment plots and a community garden area. [ citation needed ]
The community garden movement is of more recent provenance than allotment gardening, with many such gardens built on patches of derelict land, waste ground or land owned by the local authority or a private landlord that is not being used for any purpose. A community garden in the United Kingdom tends to be situated in a built-up area and is typically run by people from the local community as an independent, non-profit organisation (though this may be wholly or partly funded by public money). [ citation needed ]
It is also likely to perform a dual function as an open space or play area (in which role it may also be known as a 'city park') and—while it may offer plots to individual cultivators—the organisation that administers the garden will normally have a great deal of the responsibility for its planting, landscaping and upkeep. An example inner-city garden of this sort is Islington 's Culpeper Community Garden, or Camden 's Phoenix Garden. [ citation needed ]
Some of the larger community gardens act as a hub for the community, offering not just a pleasant green space, but also facilities for education and training. There are estimated to be more than 1,000 community-managed gardens in the UK. [ citation needed ]
The Federation of City Farms and Community Gardens (a registered charity) is a membership organisation that supports, promotes and represents community-run gardens in the UK. [ citation needed ]United States
There is an extensive network of community gardens and collective urban farms in Taipei City often occupying areas of the city that are waiting for development. river flood banks and other not suitable areas for urban construction often become legal or illegal community gardens. The network of the community gardens of Taipei are referred to as Taipei organic acupuncture of the industrial city. [ 24 ]References
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Dubai has received prodigious attention for its enormous and rapid urbanization. As one of the seven emirates in the United Arab Emirates, the city has strived to become the world’s most global city that attracted plethora of tourists and businessmen from all over the world. The construction boom that rendered emblematic architectural buildings, soaring high-rises, and artificial islands caught the whole world’s attention. While people often discuss about its experimental architecture and they talk very little about its public spaces. Public spaces serving as gathering spots and as transitioning pathways between buildings are as important as each buildings. This paper is about these public spaces in Dubai that are often ignored and intended to identify the reasoning behind this phenomenon.
Public space plays a vital role in the social and economic life of communities as a meeting place and connector between destinations. Public spaces help promote social interaction and a sense of community and therefore, it is essential to critically analyze how they are established in the urban environment. Dubai, however, is struggling with dearth of theses public spaces and they often discourage them due to many sociopolitical factors- the city state’s corporate government system, failure of central urban planning, and social exclusion. Although the city boasts its remarkable architecture and world class entertainment, lacking the crucial public spaces need to be addressed in order to improve the conditions of urban community and create a more connected, livable city for the inhabitants.
What makes up the public spaces and why are they lacking in this enormous city of Dubai? There are many types of public spaces and it is arbitrary to defin.
. middle of paper.
. the Harvard University Graduate School of Design.
Kamin, Blaire. "In Dubai, you can't get there from here; architectural feats undercut by shoddy urban planning ." Chicago Tribune, January 8, 2010. http://featuresblogs.chicagotribune.com/theskyline/2010/01/in-dubai-you-cant-get-there-from-here-architectural-feats-undercut-by-shoddy-urban-planning.html (accessed December 4, 2013).
Kent, Ethan. "Where the Sidewalk Ends: Dubai ." Streetsblog (blog), January 5, 2007. http://www.streetsblog.org/2007/01/05/where-the-sidewalk-ends-dubai/ (accessed December 4, 2013).
Jandaly, Bassma. "25,000 Dubai pedestrians penalised for jaywalking." Gulfnews, November 12, 2012. http://gulfnews.com/news/gulf/uae/general/25-000-dubai-pedestrians-penalised-for-jaywalking-1.1104029 (accessed December 4, 2013).
Michael Pacione, ‘City Profile: Dubai’, Cities, vol. 22, no. 3, 2005, pp.259-60
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