Quarry Bank Mill History Essay Topics - Essay for you

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Quarry Bank Mill History Essay Topics

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Quarry Bank Mill

Quarry Bank Mill

Quarry Bank Mill is on the outskirts of Styal in Cheshire. abutting and to the south of Manchester Airport. The mill is on the bank of the River Bollin which provided water to power the waterwheels. It was connected by road to the Bridgewater Canal for transporting raw cotton from the port of Liverpool. [ 3 ] The site consisted of three farms or folds.

Samuel Greg leased land at Quarrell Hole on Pownall Fee from Lord Stamford, who imposed a condition that 'none of the surrounding trees should be pruned, felled or lopped´; maintaining the woodland character of the area. The factory was built in 1784 by Greg [ 4 ] to spin cotton. When Greg retired in 1832 it was the largest such business in the United Kingdom. The water-powered Georgian mill still produces cotton calico. The Gregs were careful and pragmatic, paternalistic millowners, and the mill was expanded and changed throughout its history. When Greg's son, Robert Hyde Greg. took over the business, he introduced weaving. Samuel Greg died in 1834.

The Mill was attacked during the Plug Plot riots on 10 August 1842. [ 5 ]

The mill's iron water wheel. the fourth to be installed, was designed by Thomas Hewes and built between 1816 and 1820. Overhead shafts above the machines were attached to the water wheel by a belt. When the wheel turned, the motion moved the belt and powered the machinery. A beam engine and a horizontal steam engine were subsequently installed to supplement the power. The Hewes wheel broke in 1904 but the River Bollin continued to power the mill through two water turbines. The mill owners bought a Boulton and Watt steam engine in 1810 and a few years later purchased another because the river's water level was low in summer and could interrupt production of cloth during some years. Steam engines could produce power all year round. Today the mill houses the most powerful working waterwheel in Europe, an iron wheel moved from Glasshouses Mill at Pateley Bridge designed by Sir William Fairbairn who had been Hewes' apprentice.

The estate surrounding the mill was developed and Greg converted farm buildings in Styal to house workers. As the mill increased in size, housing was constructed for the workers. [ 6 ] A chapel and a school were built by the Gregs who moved into Quarry Bank House next to the mill.

The estate and mill were donated to the National Trust in 1939 by Alexander Carlton Greg and are open to the public. The mill continued in production until 1959. In 2006 the National Trust acquired Quarry Bank House and its gardens and, in 2010, the gardener's house and the upper gardens. [ 7 ] In 2013 the mill received 130,000 visitors. [ 8 ] In 2013, the trust launched an appeal to raise £1.4 million to restore a worker's cottage, a shop and the Greg's glasshouses and digitise records relating to Gregs and the mill workers. [ 8 ]

Architecture

Quarry Bank is an example of an early, rural, cotton-spinning mill that was initially dependent on water power. The first mill was built by Samuel Greg and John Massey in 1784. Its design was functional and unadorned, growing out of the pragmatism of the men who felt no need to made a bold architectural statement. [ 9 ] It was a four-storey mill measuring 8.5 metres (28 ft) by 27.5 metres (90 ft), with an attached staircase, counting house and warehouse. It was designed to use water frames which had just come out of patent, and the increased supply of cotton caused by the cessation of the American War of Independence. The water wheel was at the north end of the mill.

The mill was extended in 1796 when it was doubled in length and a fifth floor added. A second wheel was built at the southern end. The mill was extended between 1817 and 1820 and a mansard-roofed wing extended part of the 1796 building forward beneath which the wheel was installed. The new building kept the 1784 detailing with respect to line and windows. [ 10 ] The 1784 mill ran 2425 spindles, after 1805 with the new wheel it ran 3452 spindles. [ 11 ]

Weaving sheds added in 1836 and 1838 were of two storeys and housed 305 looms. [ 12 ] Before the 1830s, spinning mills produced cotton, that was put-out to hand-loom weavers who worked in their own homes or small loom shops, like the one Greg owned at Eyam. [ 13 ] Hand-loom weaving continued in parallel to power loom weaving throughout the 19th century. Around 1830 the power loom became sufficiently viable for independent weaving sheds to be set up, and for larger owners to add weaving sheds to their spinning mills. A weaving shed needed the correct light and humidity and a floor that was stable enough to withstand the vibration caused by the picking of many looms. Quarry Bank Mill is of national significance in that it used two-storey side-lit buildings rather the a single storey sheds with a saw-tooth roof. [ 14 ] The first two-storey shed at Quarry Bank was 33 metres (108 ft) by 6.5 metres (21 ft). The 1838 building was 30 metres (98 ft) by 10 metres (33 ft) to which a storey was added in 1842 for warping and beaming. In the Gregs pragmatic way, looms were purchased gradually. [ 15 ]

Water power

The first wheel was a wooden overshot wheel taking water by means of a long leat from upstream on the River Bollin. The second wheel built by Peter Ewart in 1801 was wooden. To increase power he dammed the Bollin and took water into the mill directly, the tailrace leaving the river below the dam. The third wheel of 1807 was a replacement for one of the wooden wheels. [ 16 ] It is believed it was a suspension wheel. 8 metres (26 ft) in diameter made from iron to the design of Thomas Hewes. [ 11 ]

The fourth wheel, the Great Wheel was also designed by Hewes. The challenge was to increase the head of water acting on the wheel while using the same volume of water. It was achieved by sinking the wheel pit to below the level of the river and taking the tail race through a tunnel a kilometre downstream to rejoin the Bollin at Giant's Castle. This gave a head of 32 feet (9.8 m) acting on the 32 feet (9.8 m) diameter suspension wheel- which is 21 feet (6.4 m) wide. The Great Wheel operated from 1818 to 1871 when the mill pool had silted up, and then to 1904. [ 17 ]

In 1905 two water turbines built by Gilbert Gilkes and Company were installed to replace the Great Wheel. They used the same head and tail race and operated until 1959. [ 18 ] When the mill was restored in 1983, a 25 feet (7.6 m) diameter waterwheel of similar design to that of Hewes by his pupil Sir William Fairbairn. was moved from Glasshouses Mill in Pateley Bridge and installed to provide power to work the machinery.

Steam power

Water flow from the Bollin was unreliable so an auxiliary steam engine was procured in 1810. [ 16 ] It was a 10 hp beam engine from Boulton and Watt. In 1836 with the arrival of power looms a second 20 hp Boulton and Watt beam engine was acquired. The first horizontal condensing engine was acquired in 1871. A new engine house was built. In 1906 the 1871 engine was replaced by a second-hand 60 hp engine. [ 19 ] The engines no longer exist and the museum has purchased a similar steam engine to display.

Apprentice system

The Apprentice House

Quarry Bank Mill employed child apprentices. a system that continued until 1847. The last child to be indentured started work in 1841. The first children apprentices lived in lodgings in the neighbourhood then in 1790 Greg built the Apprentice House near the factory. [ 20 ] Greg believed he could get the best out of his workers by treating them fairly. He hired a superintendent to attend to their care and morals and members of the Greg family and external tutors gave them lessons. [ 20 ] Greg employed Peter Holland, father of the Royal Physician Sir Henry Holland, 1st Baronet and uncle of Elizabeth Gaskell. as mill doctor. Holland was responsible for the health of the children and other workers, and was the first doctor to be employed in such a capacity. The apprentices were children from workhouses. Initially, they were brought from Hackney and Chelsea but by 1834 they came mostly from neighbouring parishes or Liverpool poorhouses. [ 20 ] They worked long days with schoolwork and gardening after their shift at the mill. The work was sometimes dangerous, with fingers sometimes being severed by the machines. [ 21 ] Children were willing to work in the mill because life at a workhouse was even worse. [ 22 ]

Mill community

The sparse accommodation that existed when the Gregs built the mill was soon exhausted and Greg built plain cottages which were rented to his workers. Each house had a parlour, kitchen and two bedrooms, an outside privy and a small garden. Rent was deducted from the workers' wages. [ 20 ] Greg, like Robert Owen. who built New Lanark attempted to bring the structured order of a country village to his new industrial centres. He built Oak School to educate the children and the Norcliffe Chapel where the villagers worshipped and held a Sunday school. [ 23 ]

  • The village of Styal

Other articles

Quarry Bank Mill: Wikis (The Full Wiki)

Quarry Bank Mill: Wikis

Quarry Bank Mill and its chimney.

The mill was founded by Samuel Greg in 1784 [ 2 ] in the village of Styal on the River Bollin. Its original iron water wheel was designed by Thomas Hewes and built between 1816 and 1820.

The Hewes wheel finally broke in 1904. After that the River Bollin continued to power the mill, through two water turbines. Today the Mill is home to the most powerful working waterwheel in Europe, an iron water wheel which was originally at Glasshouses Mill at Patley Bridge. This wheel was designed by Sir William Fairbairn. the Scottish engineer who had been an apprentice of Thomas Hewes.

The estate surrounding the mill, also developed by Greg, is the most complete and least altered factory colony of the Industrial Revolution. The estate and mill were donated to the National Trust in 1939 by Alexander Carlton Greg and are open to the public. The mill continued in commercial production until 1959.

The factory was founded for the spinning of cotton and by Samuel Greg's retirement in 1832 was the largest such business in the United Kingdom. The water-powered Georgian mill still produces cotton calico. After Samuel Greg died in 1834 his son, Robert Hyde Greg took over the business and soon took the decision to introduce weaving at the mill.

Originally Samuel Greg converted farm buildings in the nearby village of Styal to house the workers for the mill. As the mill increased in size, purpose-built housing in Styal was constructed for the workers [ 3 ]. The village is still a thriving community.

Quarry Bank Mill is notable for its use of unpaid child apprentices, a system that continued until 1847, with the last child to be indentured starting work in 1841. Greg employed Peter Holland, father of the Royal Physician Sir Henry Holland, 1st Baronet and uncle of Elizabeth Gaskell. as mill doctor. Holland was responsible for the health of the children and other workers, and was the first doctor to be employed in such a capacity. The children lived in a separate building near the factory called the Apprentice House. Most children came from workhouses. They would work long days with schoolwork and gardening after coming back from the mill. The work could sometimes be dangerous with fingers being lost occasionally. However, most children were happy to work in the mill because life at a workhouse would be worse. Today the Apprentice House is open to the public with timed tours being conducted by costumed interpreters.

The Greg family were Unitarians and built Norcliffe Chapel in Styal village. Their non-conformist religious beliefs provided the Gregs with important business contacts as many of the major Manchester Industrialists were Unitarian. Methodist workers at the mill later sought a place of worship, and the Gregs converted a grain store in Styal village into a Chapel for their use.

The Greg Family also had mills and the Escowbeck Estate, in Caton. near Lancaster. where they also had their own observatory built. [ 4 ]

Water power was the wonder of the late 18th Century and today you can see this technological breakthrough in action at QuarryBankMill & Styal Estate.

The QuarryBankMill was famous for many of its productions but one of the more common which is not widely known is that it produced the power to run a nearby paper mill which used to make business cards these were the very first company to introduce the concept of the business card and are well known for this invention.

The QuarryBankMill was a large and early provider of low cost electricity, powering some of the very early electronic devices found in modern homes, including those cheap tvs which became available in the late sixties and can still be found in use today.


http://www.quarrybankmill.org.uk ">Quarry Bank Mill and Styal Estate - Welcome to Quarry Bank Mill and Styal Estate

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  • 500 בחולון וחוף התכלת הרצליה

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    בשנים האחרונות גל ההתעניינות בקרקעות להשקעה הולך וגובר ועמו גם הביקוש. קרקעות רבות מופשרות למגורים והמשקיעים נוהרים כדי להשיג לעצמם כמה שיותר פיסות קרקע במחיר מוזל כדי לזכות לתשואה עליהן בעתיד.

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    Quarry Bank Mill (Styal, England): Top Tips Before You Go

    Quarry Bank Mill

    Holywell, United Kingdom

    Didnt really expect to be able to spend such a long time, The gardens are lovely and going around the mill was like taking a step back in time to when i visited my grandma at work in a lancashire cotton mill.
    Found the visit quite emotional but in a good way.
    To anyone who finds the admission prices high then maybe like us a national trust membership might be a good option, we only pay £9.76 a month for 2 adults and 2 children so they pay for themselves after 2 visits and can be used at lots of different places :) :) :)

    A Woman's Work is Never Done Exhibition, Styal Mill

    Pudding_1_11 (6 reviews)

    Manchester, United Kingdom

    Having visited Styal Mill regularly since we were children, we know every square inch. I treated my sister to a day out on her birthday to see 'A Woman's Work is Never Done' exhibition. When I was asked for £40.00 I thought I was hearing things. We told the lady at the till that we didn't want to see anything else, just the exhibition but there was only one price. The exhibition was contained to just one room, mostly text panels with a repetitive theme and two to three small exhibition cases. I honestly felt sick at the money I'd wasted.

    We thoroughly enjoyed visiting this living mill. We were shown how the apprentices lived and worked; also about the mill owners. We experienced the sights and sounds of the mill, and the surrounding area where the owners, apprentices and workers lived and worked. We learnt about the rise and fall of this industry, and were shown the progression from cottage industry to the Industrial Revolution. The story of this mill was told in the TV series "The Mill"..

    Lovely day out and excellent on site cafe

    Ellesmereporters (29 reviews)

    Spent the day here visiting the mill. Bit disappointed that the gardens were not open but they will be next weekend.

    The cafe was mad busy but did not wait too long for.

    Spent the day here visiting the mill. Bit disappointed that the gardens were not open but they will be next weekend.

    The cafe was mad busy but did not wait too long for our jacket potatoes which were huge, fresh and hot. Tables were being snapped up very quickly but the lady clearing and cleaning the tables was first class. She was working really hard and I thought she should be mentioned in my review.

    Can't wait for the Gregs house and workers cottage to be opened sometime this year.

    Quarry Bank Mill, Styal: Address, Phone Number, Top-Rated Specialty Museum Reviews