Clause Level Larsp Analysis Essay - Essay for you

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Clause Level Larsp Analysis Essay

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Description

Syntactic functions

Clauses and clause elements

Nominal function: syntactic function typical of a noun phrase (Subject, Object, Predicative; complement of preposition)

Verbal function: syntactic function typical of a verb phrase (Verb)

Adjectival function: syntactic function typical of an adjective phrase (Predicative; modifier in noun phrase)

Adverbial function: syntactic function typical of an adverb phrase (Adverbial; modifier in adjective phrase)

Read more about form and function in the Internet Grammar of English

Clause. a combination of words/phrases, usually structured around a Verb. Main clauses have a finite Verb and can function as complete, independent sentences.
Subordinate clauses are either finite or non-finite (depending on the form of the Verb). They have a syntactic function in another clause, and are thus syntactically dependent. They cannot function on their own as complete, independent sentences.

Main clause: I was reading the newspaper.
Nothing caught my interest.

Subordinate clause: � that I subscribe to (finite )

� while I was having breakfast (finite)
� while having breakfast (non-finite )

  • simple (consisting of one clause)
  • compound (consisting of two co-ordinated main clauses)
  • complex (containing at least one subordinate clause)

Simple: I was reading the newspaper.
Compound: I read the newspaper, but nothing caught my interest.
Complex: I was reading the newspaper that I subscribe to.

I was reading the newspaper while I was having breakfast.

I was reading the newspaper while having breakfast.


The structure of a complex sentence (main clause)

|-------matrix clause--------| |-------------subordinate clause-------------------|
I read in the newspaper that the president is facing further criticism.

Matrix clause = main clause minus subordinate clause.

The structure of a compound sentence

|-------main clause------| c |-------main clause-------------|
I read the newspaper, but nothing caught my interest.

adverbial Subject verb direct object mainclause level

c subj verb subordinate clause level

verb phr noun phr noun phrase phrase level

conj pron aux verb noun noun verb det adj noun word level

When she was asked, Peter�s sister sang a beautiful folksong.

S V |---------A----------------| c |----V------------| A
2. He crawled out of the gorse-bush and began to think again.

c |--------------S---------------------| V |--------sP------------|
3. And the first person he thought of was Christopher Robin.

S V |--------------A-----------------|
5. He rolled until he was black all over.

S V |--------------dO-------------------|
6. I think the bees suspect something.

A S V |-------------dO-------------------|
7. Perhaps they think that you�re after their honey.

Major Clause Patterns

Basic clause patterns: the ways in which the different constituent types can be combined in a clause (minus optional constituents)

Video

Other articles

Sentence Analysis, Clause And Phrase Level?

For my written homework, which is to be handed in before October 15th, one of the tasks is to analyse a sentence in terms of type of sentence, type of clause, clausal pattern, phrases, function within phrases and form class of words.

The sentence is as follows:
He found his secretary a reliable typist

I've managed to figure out that it's a simple sentence and that it consists of one main clause. I also think I've figured out the clausal pattern: S, P, dO and oC (correct me if I'm wrong!)

The problem lies in the next area: phrases.

The first constituent [he] is a noun phrase, [found] is a verb phrase, [his secretary] must be a noun phrase, but what about the next one? Is [a reliable typist] an adjective phrase, or is it simply a noun phrase too, like the others?

Moving into the function within phrases area, is the word typist the head of that phrase? And reliable the premodifier?

I know how to deal with many simple, compound and complex sentences, but I found this one a bit hard actually.

Thanks in advance for all help!
Regards from Norway

Sep 29 2004 16:21:14

Hello, Zyph, and welcome to the forums.

Congratulations! Your analysis is perfect.

"His secretary" is -not just 'must be'- a noun phrase. It has a determiner (his) and a noun as head (secretary).

Object complements are usually either noun phrases/clauses or adjectival phrases/clauses. You are right that in your sentence the OC is a noun phrase. If you are in doubt, compare it with the DO: both have (almost) the same structure. In the OC, "a" is the determiner, "reliable" (adjective) the premodifier, and "typist" (noun) the head.

If the sentence were, say, "He found his secretary very reliable", then the OC would be "very reliable" (an adjectival phrase), with "very" as premodifier and "reliable" as the head.

Sep 29 2004 16:45:00

Thanks Miriam for your quick responce!

I'm studying English at a Norwegian university, and this forum will certainly be used frequently during my time of study. It's great that there are such sources out on the internet, with helpful and clever people ready to answer your question in no time.

Sep 29 2004 17:58:35

The sentence is interesting for its ambiguity.
Another interpretation, admittedly less likely but nevertheless possible, is S P iO dO.

Sep 30 2004 02:43:17

"Another interpretation, admittedly less likely but nevertheless possible, is S P iO dO."

Yes, my first attempt resulted in an SPOO-sentence actually. Ambiguity creates confusion, and I suspect my teacher in choosing that sentence on purpose

Sep 30 2004 02:57:54

Not to mention that ambiguity makes you think!
Aren't teachers just awful that way.

Sep 30 2004 06:29:24

But how can you make a tree diagram for this sentence. I think it is a very hard sentence to analyze. Is found a lexical verb. And how can you analyze his secretary. I know it is a noun phrase but what else.

I am so bad at tree diagram at this moment. And I have the exact same homework.

Sep 22 2010 12:48:46

Anonymous Is found a lexical verb? A lexical verb is a verb that's not a modal verb nor an auxiliary verb, and "found" is neither of these, so of course it's a lexical verb! Anonymous how can you analyze his secretary. I don't know what else you need to know about it in order to diagram it. I would say it's the first of two noun phrases in a subordinate structure. Is that what you're looking for?

Sep 22 2010 18:13:12

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CP Version History

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Steven Long
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Speech Pathology and Audiology
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Page last modified: March 15, 2006

CP Version History

This page describes substantial changes made to CP since version 7.1 (published in 1993, distributed in North America by The Psychological Corporation). See the CP Information page for a more detailed description of the program and the analyses it performs.

Changes in CP 9.7.0 CORPUS
  • Utterance numbering can be shown for all utterances, all except null responses, or only complete and intelligible utterances.
PROPH
  • Color highlighting during data entry shows when target and transcription forms disagree and distinguishes codes for omitted vowels and consonants.
  • Revision of the process analysis for the Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns-Third Edition (HAPP-3), based on Hodson (2004).
  • Default mode for data entry can be changed by pressing space bar.
Changes in CP 9.6.0
  • A new phonological process analysis for the Hodson Assessment of Phonological Patterns-Third Edition (HAPP-3), based on Hodson (2004).
  • Revision of the Grunwell (Brief) and Grunwell (Extended) phonological process analyses, based on Grunwell (1987).
  • Revision of the phonological process analysis for Spanish.
  • New profile: Word/Process Breakdown shows the phonological processes that were identified in each word in the PROPH data file.
  • Additional help in coding dialectal forms in the Edit PROPH File module. You can view dialectal variants of any target form, helping to differentiate developmental and dialectal sound changes occurring in the same production.
  • Search PROPH File module allows searches for correct productions of vowels and error productions of vowels.
  • Error Breakdown in PROPH Profile is modified to show percentage of substitutions, omissions, distortions, and additions. Omission errors are further delineated as those involving singletons, entire clusters, or cluster elements.
CAP
  • Utterance Level and Discourse Level codes for the Conversational Acts Profile can be entered directly into transcript files. If included, they are read and tabulated automatically by the CAP program, eliminating the need to enter the codes through menu selection.
Changes in CP 9.5.0
  • Both long (Windows) and short (DOS) filenames are displayed when files are selected. [This feature does not work under Windows 2000/XP.]
  • Automatic display of first contextual note (from CORPUS file) or first line of file information (from PROPH file) when files are selected
CORPUS
  • Revised scheme for creating CORPUS files in three steps: create transcript file, check transcript file (optional), and convert transcript file to CORPUS file
  • Speakers can be identified by unique letter codes in the transcript text file. These are converted to the standard designations P (for the child, patient, student, etc.) and T (for the therapist, teacher, parent, or other conversational partner of P) when the CORPUS file is created
  • Both long (Windows) and short (DOS) filenames can be used when creating transcript text files. [This feature does not work under Windows 2000/XP.]
LARSP
  • New module: Edit LARSP Profile Lets you add or remove LARSP profile tallies from a data file that has been tabulated, thereby correcting errors in the LARSP analysis produced by CP
APRON
  • Simplified scheme for entering Verb Relation, Other Relation, Argument, and Connective codes
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  • New module: Look Up Phoneme Mastery shows which phonemes/clusters should be mastered by an American child of a given age and gender, according to data from the Iowa-Nebraska Articulation Norms Project (Smit, Hand, Freilinger, Bernthal, & Bird, 1990)
  • Improvement of Sound Accuracy Profile to show those phonemes/clusters expected for a child's age and gender, those fully or partially mastered in the sample, and those not mastered
  • Improved performance in Adjust for Dialect feature of Edit PROPH File module. Transcription forms are scanned by rule for features of either African American Vernacular English (AAVE) or Spanish Influenced English (SIE). Dialectal forms not identified by rule scan can be added to variants dictionary
  • Syllable structure changes are shown as part of the phonological process analysis
  • Both long (Windows) and short (DOS) filenames can be used when creating PROPH files. [This feature does not work under Windows 2000/XP.]
Changes in CP 9.4.1
  • CP documents can be printed using the Windows application Txtprint, allowing printing over a local network or with USB printers, and offering formatting options that improve appearance and reduce paper use
CORPUS
  • support of Spanish language transcripts for the Index Utterances, Utterance Count, and Word Concordance modules.
  • separate child and adult dictionaries for transcript tagging
DSS
  • Black English Sentence Scoring (BESS, Nelson, 1998; Nelson & Hyter, 1990), an adaptation of DSS for use with speakers of African American Vernacular English
  • automatic comparison of DSS and BESS scores to normative data reported by Lee (1974) and Nelson & Hyter (1990), respectively
LARSP
  • direct links between profile chart and Search LARSP File module, making it easier to evaluate syntactic productivity
PRISM-L
  • option to create a lexical index showing semantic fields, the words classified within them, and the utterances in which each word occurs
PROPH
  • support of Spanish language transcripts for all PROPH modules
  • automatic coding of target and transcription syllable stress patterns
  • inventory of transcription stress patterns
  • analysis of correspondence between target and transcription word shapes
  • analysis of correspondence between target and transcription stress patterns
  • automatic comparison of Sound Accuracy data to normative data for American children reported by Smit, Hand, Freilinger, Bernthal, & Bird (1990)
  • display of homonymous forms and types in Search PROPH File module
  • analysis of Syllable Structural Level (Paul & Jennings, 1992)
  • analysis of Phonological Mean Length of Utterance and Proportion of Whole Word Proximity (Ingram, 2001)
  • expanded phonetic dictionaries for national standard varieties of English: USA-Canada General, Australian, British RP, Scottish, and North American-nonrhotic
  • dictionaries of variant forms for nonstandard dialectal varieties of English: African American Vernacular English (AAVE) and Spanish Influenced English (SIE)
Changes in CP 9.2.7 Changes in CP 9.2.6
  • CP Help program (cphelp.exe) can be run as a separate application at the same time as CP
  • transcript checks of CORPUS and SALT files improved and expanded
  • Practice SALT Coding module now checks for transcript format errors
  • index feature in PROPH profile display lets you jump to selected sections of the profile
Changes in CP 9.2.5
  • option to create a report showing, for each semantic field, the words classified in that field and the utterances in which those words occurred (sample profile )
  • new analysis: Inventory of Vowel Phones (screen shot )
  • a reorganization of the PROPH profile report that groups together all independent and relational analyses (screen shot )
Changes in CP 9.2.4
  • updated help files that are linked to menus and program operations
  • "capsule summaries" describing the choices available in key menus (screen shot )
  • reorganized so that modules for each analysis procedure are grouped into Basic Programs, Further Analyses, and Advanced Operations (screen shot )

Narrative Analysis Procedure (NAP)

  • a new module for the analysis of cohesive ties in narrative samples, based on the work of Halliday and Hasan (1976), as modified by Halldorson (1993). (screen shot ) (sample profile )
  • automatic checking of CORPUS or SALT formatted transcripts to help identify common transcription errors and problems (screen shot )
  • import of transcript files in CHAT (MacWhinney, http://childes.psy.cmu.edu/chat.pdf ) format
  • improved import of transcript files in SALT format
  • improved help files, including access to examples that can assist in coding decisions
  • improved help files that are linked to coding categories
  • improved utterance search and editing features
  • option to construct a table showing, for each sentence, the scores received in the 8 grammatical categories, the sentence point category, and the total score (screen shot )
  • option to create a report showing, for each semantic field, the words classified in that field and the utterances in which those words occurred (screen shot )
  • Create age interval files option in the Model Sound Changes module lets you illustrate developmental changes in speech development
  • In the Create PROPH File module you have the option of coding all words in the file for their syntactic word class. CP derives this information from its syntactic parsing routines.
  • Adjust for dialect in the Edit PROPH File module lets you store information about dialectal or casual speech sound changes and then apply that information to a data file, automatically adjusting the target phonetic forms
  • Likely transcriptions in the Edit PROPH File module provides a drop-down menu of transcription forms that reflect likely developmental sound changes
  • new analysis: Sound Accuracy profile shows the number of correct productions, number of target opportunities, and the percentage accuracy for each consonant singleton and cluster; it also indicates whether phoneme mastery has been achieved according to criteria you specify.
  • new analysis: table shows the percentage of consonants produced correctly for each feature class, tabulated by position (initial, medial, final, total)
  • data searches for correct and error productions can be specified by phoneme or by feature class
  • new analysis: Inventory of Vowel Phones (screen shot )
  • a reorganization of the PROPH profile report that groups together all independent and relational analyses (screen shot )
Changes in CP 9.0.3
  • expanded help files with key word search
  • tutorials to help you learn basic program operation
  • glossary of linguistics terminology available as help file in Main Menu
  • scrollable displays of profile reports, help files, and other information
  • additional options in Preferences
  • file search feature enables you to identify data files containing specific text strings in any or all data locations
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  • the GCats parser (Channell, 1997), incorporated into CP, automatically generates grammatical tags that are inserted into CORPUS files as contextual notes - these tags improve the accuracy of all CP modules
  • omitted words and bound morphemes in SALT transcript files automatically converted into contextual notes
  • filtering of contextual notes to improve transcript readability
  • new analyses: sentence index, word concordance, compare files, and utterance count
  • in Windows 95, audio (.wav) files of transcript recordings can be played
  • Code SALT File automatically generates bound morpheme (slash) codes and identifies grammatical constituents via word codes inserted into a transcript file
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  • improved default choices based on automatic syntactic parsing
  • additional editing features, including dictionary lookup, batch recoding, recall of previous choices
  • dictionary search by word frequency
  • expanded dictionaries, including phrasal idioms
  • recall of previous choices during coding
  • coding categories can be edited to suit your conceptual or terminological preferences
  • new module: Productivity Analysis of Early Language (PANEL)
  • new module: Compare APRON Files identifies discrepancies in coding between two files
  • new module: Practice APRON Coding provides students with structured coding practice, context-sensitive help, and accuracy feedback
Early Vocabularies
  • coding data can be edited
  • new module: Compare Early Vocabularies files identifies discrepancies in coding between two files
  • improved automatic parsing
  • additional summary measures: percentage of clauses/phrases by stage, mean sentence complexity - clausal, mean sentence complexity - phrasal, percentage complex sentences, clauses with 2+ expansions, expanded VP, mean syntactic length (MSL, Klee & Fitzgerald, 1985; Klee, 1992), syntactic complexity score (Blake & Quartaro, 1990; Blake, Quartaro, & Onorato, 1993)
  • analysis of verb transitivity in Verb Valency module
  • breakdown of error types in Compare LARSP Files module
  • expanded options for searches of LARSP+ codes and constituent categories
  • help files linked to individual codes
  • multiple sets of Error codes that can be selected and edited
  • new module: Export LARSP Data File sends LARSP profile tallies from multiple files to a tab-delimited text file
  • new module: Practice LARSP Coding provides students with structured coding practice, context-sensitive help, and accuracy feedback
  • new module: Productivity Analysis of Early Language (PANEL)
  • new module: Find Code/Word in File searches LARSP+ data files in current Data Location and locates all occurrences of selected codes or words
  • new module: LARSP Coding Help searches LARSP+ examples files in a selected location and locates all occurrences of selected codes or words
  • new module: Index of Productive Syntax (IPSyn)
  • new module: Compare IPSyn Files identifies discrepancies in coding between two files
  • new module: Search DSS File enables searches for utterances containing particular scoring categories
  • new module: Practice DSS Coding provides students with structured practice, context-sensitive help, and accuracy feedback
  • improvements to coding of utterance repetitions and excluded utterances
  • the transliterated phonetic alphabet used in earlier versions of CP has been replaced by true phonetic characters or close equivalents
  • maximum file size increased to 330 words
  • additional Code field for word entries allows analyses to be performed with or without problems, frequent items, imitations, spontaneous productions, etc.
  • additional Remark field for word entries allows entry of comments for students, research assistants, etc.
  • automatic calculation of the "90/70/225" rule (Shriberg & Kwiatkowski, 1985) for phonological samples
  • calculation of Articulation Competence Index (Shriberg, 1993) and selective PCC measures: PCC-Revised, PCC-Adjusted, PCC-Early 8, PCC- Middle 8, and PCC-Late 8 (Shriberg, 1996)
  • enhanced phonological process analysis: additional processes, option for long or short analysis, calculation of percentage correct for all process opportunities to detect process "bleeding"
  • additional PROPH+ analyses: homonymy (Ingram, 1981), phonetic variability, sound accuracy by phoneme/position, and sound errors by feature class/position
  • new module: Create PROPH Dictionary enables creation and editing of up to nine separate phonetic dictionaries for national, regional, and nonstandard varieties of English
  • phonetic dictionary can be accessed from the Edit PROPH File module
  • variant pronunciations (e.g. citation form, rapid speech form) can be entered in dictionary
  • new phonetic dictionaries: British (RP), Canadian, Southern American, Eastern American, Appalachian American, African American
  • words can be automatically coded for length in syllables, allowing comparative analyses of monosyllabic and multisyllabic productions, or for grammatical function, allowing comparison of functor and substantive words
  • new module: Compare PROPH Files identifies differences in coding and transcription between two files
  • new module: Practice PROPH Coding provides students with structured transcription practice and accuracy feedback
  • new module: Transfer Transcriptions enables comparison of transcription forms to different targets, e.g. standard and nonstandard dialects
  • new module: Model Sound Changes shows the effect of one or more sound changes (phonological processes or substitution/deletion of individual segments) on a file of phonetic forms
  • new module: Search All Dictionaries searches all phonetic dictionaries for one or more target forms to facilitate the comparison of regional or social dialects
  • in Windows 95, audio (.wav) files of word recordings can be played in both Edit PROPH File and Practice PROPH Coding modules
  • new module: Compare PROP Files identifies discrepancies in coding between two files

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