ZAMBIAN OPEN UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL. School of Social Sciences
COMPUTER NO. 21010298
NAME. Mwase Bernard
PROGRAMME. B.A. Development Studies
COURSE. DS 36: Planning, Monitoring & Evaluation
LECTURER. Mr. Valentine Mwanza
SEMESTER. Second Semester
DUE DATE. 18 October 2013
TEL. No. 0966-836-022
CONTACT ADDRESS. Livingstone Institute of Business &
Engineering Studies, P.O. BOX D 27,
Plot 2621 Nakatindi Road, LIVINGSTONE
Monitoring and Evaluation are critical activities that must accompany implementation for the plan to be achieved. However, much of the quality and evaluation derive from the experience of the Evaluator as well as the resources at hand. Critically discuss the above statement.
Evaluator`s experience: Monitoring and Evaluation critical activities for achievement of plan: 21010298
Every problem existing in a community has causes and effects. To resolve these problems, the root causes need to be identified and this is where knowledge, efforts and resources need to be directed appropriately. If the causes are not identified, all efforts that are being made to find a solution will be in vain as resources will be directed at effects, which may be wrong targets.
This can be likened to healing symptoms while the disease remains in a person. Targeting effects may give short – term relief but it does not solve the problem. The problem is best solved when the root causes are identified and all efforts targeted at them.
This is why this essay shall discuss the importance of the.
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Investigation Into Gender Bias
I remember the day well: It was a sunny, Sunday afternoon and my friends and I were playing inside the house. Our electric race car track wasn't working and we were quickly becoming frustrated of trying to fix it. Lego had become boring a couple hours earlier, so we had nothing to do. We walked upstairs and looked outside, to see my friends' sisters playing house out on the deck. They were having so much fun, wearing shorts and a T-shirt in the balmy summer weather that all three of us wanted to go out and play house with them. We all knew that each of us wanted to be outside but no-one was going to ask the girls if we could play house. The reason was obvious: the girls were playing a girl game and us boys just didn't play girl games.
This is only one example of situations that occur every day, situations when we feel uncomfortable because of "gender training". Gender training in our society starts very early in our life. From the long dresses of Cinderella to the macho attitude of Prince Charming, wearing pink baby clothes instead of blue or green: these are all examples of early gender training. In this essay I will talk about the extent of gender training, its effects on our society and their consequences, good or bad.
Today there is much talk as to why boys traditionally wear blue as babies and girls wear pink. Sometimes in peoples' arguments, they forget to look closely at the beginning. I would like to open up a question for debate on this topic: Is pink really assigned to baby girls as the colour to wear, or is it a natural taste of the feminine mind? And for baby boys, does blue represent a sense of masculinity from their fathers, or perhaps, even a false sense of masculinity from the women, who traditionally bought their clothes?
After much thought, I think that the colours of "blue and pink" were originally chosen by the adults who were attracted to those colours by personal reasons and the two colours have now become a rigid tradition which some people like to change, simply in their own personal interest.
Recently, I found a web page on the Internet that described what certain colours showed to our brains. All colours had some sort of optimistic feel, and this site was obviously a "hippie-made site" (shown by the bleeding background and VW Van on the bottom) however, I think that the text is worth being looked at. White - Protection, peace, truth, inspiration, growth. Green - Healing, money, luck, Harmonic Balance. Red - Sexual love, passion, energy, vitality. Yellow - Opening of the intellect, stimulation of the mind. Purple - Spiritual power, strength. Blue - Healing, meditation, tranquillity, spiritual development, protection. Pink - Emotional love, happiness, friendship, joy. Orange - Strength, optimism, success. Black - the end, death, sudden change, new beginnings. It has always been know that colours affect the way you think. Painters use colours such as yellow to "cheer up" and "open up" a room and I've heard that holding a piece of yellow paper with the word "think" on it helps you remember things during an exam! What I am interested now is whether or not gender training as a baby is affecting our views of the world. If you wear pink as a baby and are exposed to pink often (wallpaper of you room, dolls, etc.) perhaps you have strong emotional love and energy, for example. Or, on the guys side, maybe after years of seeing blue you think more of tranquillity, protection and healing or, after wearing red you have passionate moods with energy and (from another source) possibly aggression. If you like to wear black, does that give you a grim outlook on the world, like death or the end? I think that is an area where research could be done and some interesting results occur, helping our future generations understand and possibly control their personal tastes.
All of our life, we are faced with situations where we feel uncomfortable because of gender training. Girls and boys have similar problems, especially as kids. For example, two boys are playing in a sandbox and one girl is by herself playing with her dolls. She isn't having much fun by herself, but she knows it would be lots of fun in the sandbox. The only problem is that girls can't play in the sandbox with boys and Tonka Trucks, it's not right. We know this happens as kids and as adolescence, even. Does it happen in adulthood. I think it happens less in adulthood because the older you become, the narrower you think and the narrower you ways become so there is little problem. Also, as an adult, you are more comfortable around your peers, and not so self-conscious.
When these uncomfortable situations occur I think people react to them differently but they are all uncomfortable. This commonly results in embarrassment, sometimes a joke is thrown at the person involved, a lack of identity occurs and the person feels very insecure. People feel uncomfortable in these situations because we are well trained; gender training imprints us for life; it is like going to school to learn math for your entire life.
In society today, gender training affects many different areas. In media/fashion the problems there lie in the masculinity and femininity of clothing. The short, revealing skirts of today's girls turn on the guys, but is it right to exploit their looks and body? The men of the 90's are very covered up with long, baggy pants and shirts. To tell the truth, they don't have the body of a woman, and they know it, so they just go along for the ride. For security and personal rights I think that men have become to aggressive and sexism is disgustingly overtaking our society. Prejudice at the workplace is now working both ways, women not being hired for some jobs, men for others. Freedom of women is becoming less, as night crime rises, the women is targeted because of less protection. These things in society are a result of gender training and should be changed because they are degrading to people, however, I think gender training is unavoidable in this society whether or not it is "good or bad". Despite this, there are problems with it and the extent to which it practiced. Without gender training, though, our society would probably suffer from a huge identity crisis and the next generation would feel quite lost.
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Composition 1301 S-60A
3 November 2012
Hispanic vs. Pakistani: Gender Roles in Society
When a culture has a way of doing things, it is supposed to be like that till the end of time. Little did ancestors know, with the way society evolved some customs cannot stay the same. Jobs are now created for both men and women and money has become more of a necessity to survive. Looking at two cultures in particular, Hispanics and Pakistanis, they both have diverse views on the roles of their men and women. In addition to what is permissible and frowned upon in a culture. They each allow distinctive roles to be played in society such as workforce, and or domestication. However, the cultures both had become affected by changes such as bills, taxes, keeping a home up, providing for children, and the requirements to be allowed a career. At the beginning of time these cultures first started out, nothing else was known but what they created and put in their own minds. Both Hispanic and Pakistani men made it their mindset that they must be the provider, the one waited on. Being a working Hispanic man with no formal education, minimum wage is about $7.25 an hour. With only that kind of pay many men cannot be the only provider for their family, household, or bills therefore many endure hardships. Some men wait behind buildings, or in alleys waiting for the average man seeking cheap labor just for any extra money they can receive. In Pakistan, “the minimum wage for the factory: 4600 RPK per month (equivalent to 37 US cents an hour for a 48-hour workweek) plus the required 44.23 rupees/hr overtime for more than the standard 48-hour workweek in Pakistan (equivalent to 74 US cents an hour)” (Cook). Nevertheless, some men go against how things should be and take on the role of a stay at home dad, while women financially provide for their family. There is no set role in the society people love in today, as times changes so do people to better adapt to the way of living. When the word.
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Autor: anton • November 3, 2010 • 1,067 Words (5 Pages) • 388 Views
Through the mass media, our patriarchal capitalist system has created the illusion that Women's Liberation has progressed when gender equality policies were introduced, such as "equal salaries" and the right to vote. It has convinced the common North American woman to believe that she is not socially restrained, that her accomplishments can be unlimited, that she is in total charge and control of her life. However, conventional norms veiled deeply and expressed indirectly in the mass media continue to dictate and subdue lives according to gender. Seemingly innocent short TV ads, still remarkably traditional in depicting gender roles, condone and reinforce gender oppression. This paper will focus on the underlying imagery of several advertisements, which help perpetuate gender oppression and reinforce the patriarchial system.
The first advertisement was extracted from the popular magazine Cosmopolitan, targeted to a predominantly young female adult audience. The ad illustrates a young couple in which the man is kissing the hand of his soon-to-be wife, with an engagement ring on her finger. The picture itself places both the male and the female in their corresponding gender roles in mainstream society: buying his bride an expensive ring, the man fulfills his role as 'Good Provider' and the woman not only willingly accepts this symbol of belonging to the man, but is extremely satisfied and blissful. This ring, of course, does not fall short of its symbolic expectations. The act of offering her a ring, the man may be seen as manifesting deep love; but he is also making an investment, expressing it in the form of commitment. In a sense, this is also a form of tenure and possession; he is expecting her to completely give herself to him. The subtext to the slogan "Platinum. For a lifetime of love" also suggests a lifetime of ensured financial security and protection for the woman. It reduces the expression of love to a brand of jewelry, selling it not just as a product, but as a standardized lifestyle. How can a woman become truly emancipated if she is economically dependent of man throughout her life, typically from father to husband? In the ad, the man has also fallen victim to the expectations of his gender role in society. Under pressure to fit the masculine profile, he must financially provide for his partner and shower her with pricey gifts, not to mention choose a proper trophy wife: feminine, attractive, submissive and delighted at everything he does. With bombarding messages like these, how can marriage truly be about love and not about private property within a social institution? The message behind this advertisement reflects the traditional expectations of both genders powerfully, yet subtly and indirectly.
In the second example also extracted from Cosmopolitan, accomplished female pop icon Beyonce Knowles is advertising for a Hilfiger fragrance. Most consider this woman to be an empowered career woman, a "true star" for achieving her goals by her talent and skills. However, in this ad (as well as in many others to which she sells her image) she is degraded to only an erotic representation of females, a creature of beauty poised in a way to suggest that she is sexually available. The allusion reverts this 'empowered modern woman' back on track to her ordained role in society to service herself for the male enjoyment. The subtext "a private performance" degrades her career as a performer to a sex object for the consumption of man, specifically for the consumption of the targeted reader "privately". Although she is portrayed as sexually available, she is only sexually active for the viewer. The double standard that a woman must be preoccupied in adorning herself for men's approval, but must save and reserve herself for only one man is also depicted here.
Finally, the TV advertisement for "The Swiffer" is one of many examples in which gender roles