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Abhijnanasakuntalam Critical Essays On Paradise

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Abhijnanasakuntalam critical essays on paradise


The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes (1907–21).
Volume IX. From Steele and Addison to Pope and Swift.

II. Steele and Addison .

§ 20. Its Literary Criticism: Addison on Paradise Lost, and On the Pleasures of the Imagination.

Steele had loyally supplemented these more scholarly papers, whenever Addison gave him an opening for a humorous contribution 149 and even succeeded in showing how Raphael’s cartoons 150 are studies in the grandeur of human emotions. But his spontaneous and erratic genius quite failed to keep pace with the dogmatism of Addison’s next and greatest critical effort. This was the series of Saturday papers 151 in which he criticises Paradise Lost by the canons of Aristotle, Longinus and Le Bossu and, though finding faults in Milton, judges him to be equal if not superior, to Homer or Vergil. From the eighteenth century point of view, he was right. The middle classes who read books were not themselves subjected to the great emotions of life, but were bent on methodically building up their own culture. Hence, they could not appreciate the mystery, the passion, the wildness or the pathos of ancient epic, and it is significant that these qualities are not conspicuous in the great translations of the period, which charmed by their rhetoric and polish. The average eighteenth-century reader had somewhat the same point of view as the Italian critics of the renascence and valued what had passed through the crucible of the intellect and smelt of the lamp. When people at this stage of culture consider a work of imagination, they are too prosaic to comprehend the romance of human activity. They want projected shadows of life, which are vaster than reality and bolder in outline, though less searching. Milton met these intellectual requirements more fully than his forerunners, and Addison, in interpreting his poet, seems to have followed Minturno’s line of argument when he championed the epic against the romanzi. Addison contended that Milton dealt with the destiny of the whole world, they but with that of a single nation. His characters, though fewer in number, appear more varied and less earthbound than theirs. The conception of sin and death contains “a beautiful allegory” affecting all humanity. Adam and Eve typify different beings before and after their fall. Their “conferences” are less mundane than the “loves” of Dido and Aeneas; Satan is more wily and more travelled than Ulysses. 152 Besides, Paradise Lost was originally conceived as a tragedy, and, though the dramatic atmosphere which pervades its final form is rightly judged to be a blemish, 153 it is, for this reason, more easily reducible to Aristotle’s rules. After taking a bird’s-eye view of the action, the actors, the sentiments and the language, 154 Addison proceeds to consider each book separately. No greater service could have been rendered to the unformed taste of his time than to point out where Milton is to be admired, and Addison has the wisdom to illustrate his criticisms so copiously that these papers almost constitute a book of selected “beauties.” Much that he praises is of permanent value, such as grandeur of style and loftiness of conception; but, in much again, his literary judgment is unconsciously biassed by a spirit of propaganda. In reality, The Spectator was continuing, after nearly two generations, the same reaction against restoration ideals which Milton had begun in his old age. Thus, Paradise Lost had a hold on Addison’s admiration quite apart from its intrinsic merits. Milton’s tumultuous and overburdened similes seemed perfect, in contrast with the artifices of the little wits. 155 Eve’s purity and modesty exercised an exaggerated charm in view of contemporary looseness, 156 and it was regarded as specially appropriate that her dream, inspired by Satan, should be full of pride and conceits. 157 Moreover, the age saw that learning was its salvation and, in Paradise Lost, enjoyed the quite artificial pleasures of research. Addison no longer holds to Lionardi’s, Fracastor’s and Scaliger’s 158 creed that all erudition is an ornament to poetry; but he experiences a subtle delight in tracing obscure parallels in inspiration—comparing the sword of Michael with the sword of Aeneas, or the golden compasses of the Creator with the Minerva’s aegis, or the repentance of Adam and Eve with the grief of Oedipus. And, finally, The Spectator was furthering a religious revival under the auspices of culture and, therefore, found in Paradise Lost the same kind of superiority that Harington 159 had claimed for Orlando Furioso. Addison reconciles himself even to the speeches of the Almighty, though they are not “so proper to fill the mind with sentiments of grandeur, as with thoughts of devotion”; 160 while the morning and evening hymns, and the use of scriptural phraseology throughout the poem, seemed like a touch of inspiration higher than any of which a pagan could boast.

These Milton papers met with an enthusiastic reception. They exercised an influence throughout the eighteenth century and only became obsolete when Sainte-Beuve had taught Europe that the critic should be less of a judge than a reconstructor—almost an artist who creates a picture of the author’s mind and of the atmosphere in which he wrote. In any case, Addison never attempted to enlarge the bounds of thought. His aim was to gather up the best ideas of his time and put them within reach of the ordinary reader. The same is true of his successive papers on æsthetics, or, as he calls them, “On the Pleasures of the Imagination.” 161 He wanted to show how the emotions can be raised and purified by what men see and read. So, he discussed the intellectual pleasure to be found, first, in landscapes and gardens, then, in statues, pictures and architecture, and, then, in the mirrored views of life which a descriptive writer can call up before the mind’s eye. This difficult and intricate subject involved an inquiry into the psychology of the imagination and a scientific discrimination of the functions and limits of the different arts. Granted his limitations, Addison is more than equal to the task. He draws on his own travels and experiences, he applies the wisdom of the ancients and the more recent discoveries of Descartes, Locke and Berkeley; 162 yet his exposition is lucid and complete within the compass of eleven short essays. But, though he popularises admirably the ideas of his time, he cannot investigate for himself. The thoughts of his contemporaries lead him to the very brink of Lessing’s discovery concerning the relation of poetry to sculpture, 163 but he does not take a step further when his guides leave him. Nevertheless, these papers must have awakened in many a new sense of aesthetic enjoyment. 164 Among other things, he protests against the artificiality of rococo gardens, and shows what a mine of wonder and reflection had been opened up by natural philosophy. 165

Other articles

English 324: The Poetry of John Milton

English 324: Reserve Text: Excerpts from Addison's Critical Essays on Paradise Lost. reprinted in Timothy Miller, The Critical Response to John Milton'sParadise Lost. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1997.

The Spectator. Number 262

As the First Place among our English Poets is due to Milton, and as I have drawn more Quotations out of him than from any other, I shall enter into a regular Criticism upon his Paradise Lost. which I shall publish every Saturday till I have given my Thoughts upon that Poem. I shall not however presume to impose upon others my own particular Judgment on this Author, but only to deliver it as my private Opinion. Criticism is of a very large Extent, and every particular Master in this Art has his favourite Passages in an Author, which do not equally strike the best Judges. It will be sufficient for me if I discover many beauties or Imperfections which others have not attended to, and I should be very glad to see any of orlr eminent Writers publish their Discoveries on the same Subject In short, I would always be understood to write my Papers of Criticism in the spirit which Horace has expressed in those two famous Lines.

----Si quid novisti rectius istis
Candidus imperti, si non his utere mecnum.

If you have made better Remarks of your own, communicate them with Candour; if not, make use of these I present you with.

The Spectator, Number 267

THERE is nothing in Nature so irksome as general Discourses, especially when they turn chiefly upon Words. For this Reason I shall wave the Discussion of that Point which was started some Years since, Whether Milton 's Paradise Lost may be called an Heroick Poem? Those who will not give it that Title, may call it (if they please) a Divine Poem. It will be sufficient to its Perfection, if it has in it all the Beauties of the highest kind of Poetry; and as far those who allege it is not an Heroick Poem, they advance no more to the Diminution of it, than if they should say Adam is not Aeneas, nor Eve Helen.

1 shall therefore examine it by the Rules of Epic Poetry, and see whether it falls short of the Iliad or Aneid, in the Beauties which are essential to that kind of writing. The first Thing to be considered in an Epic Poem, is the Fable, which is perfect or irmperfect, according as the Action which it relates is more or less s. This Action should have three Qualifications in it. First. It should be but one Action. Secondly, it should be an enthe Action; and Thirdly, it should be a great Action. To consider the Action of the Iliad. Aeneid. and Paradise Lost in these three several lights. Homer to preserve the Unity of his Action hastens into the midst of things, as Horace has observed. Had he gone up to Leda 's egg, or begun much later. even at the Rape of Helen, or the Investing of Troy, it is

manifest that the Story of the Poem would have been a Series of several Actions. He therefore opens his Poem with the Discord of his Princes, and with great Art interweaves in the several succeeding parts of it, an account of every thing material which relates to them, and had passed before that fatal Dissention. After the same manner Aeneas makes his first appearance in the Tyrrhene Seas, and within sight of Italy, because the Action proposed to be celebrated was that of his Settling himself in Latium. But because it was necessary for the Reader to know what had happened to him in the taking of Troy, and in the preceding parts of his Voyage, Virgil makes his Hero relate it by way of Episode in the second and third Books of the Aeneid. The Contents of both which Books come before those of the first Book in the Thread of the Story, the' for preserving of this Unity of Action, they follow them in the Disposition of the Poem. Milton, in Imitation of these two great Poets, opens his Paradise Lost with an Infernal Council plotting the Fall of Man, which is the Action he proposed to celebrate; and as for those great Actions, which preceded in point of time, the Battle of the Angels, and the Creation of the World, (which would have enthely destroyed the Unity of his Principal Action, had he related them in the same Order that they happened) he cast them into the fifth, sixth and seventh Books, by way of Episode to this noble Poem.

Arisrotle himself allows, that Homer has nothing to boast of as to the Unity of his Fable, the' at the same time that great Critick and Philosopher endeavours to palliate this Imperfection in the Greek Poet, by imputing it in some Measure to the very Nature of an Epic Poem. Some have been of Opinion, that the Aeneid labours also in this particular, and has Episodes which may be looked upon as Excrescencies rather than as Parts of the Action On the contrary, the Poem which we have now under our Consideration, hath no other Episodes than such as naturally arise from the Subject, and yet is filled with such a multitude of astonishing Incidents, that it gives us at the same time a Pleasure of the greatest Variety, and of the greatest Simplicity; uniform in its Nature, though diversified in the Execution.

I must observe also, that as Virgil in the Poem which was designed to celebrate the Original of the Roman Empire, has described the Birth of its great Rival, the Carthaginian Commonwealth. Milton with the like Art in his Poem on the Fall of Man, has related the Fall of those Angels who are his professed Enemies. Besides the many other Beauties in such all Episode, it's running Parallel with the great Action of the Poem, hinders it from breaking the Unity so much as another Episode would have done, that had not so great an Affinity with the principal Subject. In short, this is the same kind of Beauty which the Criticks admire in the The Spanish Fryar, or the Double Discovery, where the two different Plots look like Counterparts and Copies of one another.

The second Qualification required in the Action of an Epic Poem is, that it should be an entire Action. An Action is entire when it is compleat in all its Parts; or as Aristotle describes it, when it consists of a Beginning, a Middle, and

The Spectator, Number 267

THERE is nothing in Nature so irksome as general Discourses, especially when they turn chiefly upon Words. For this Reason I shall wave the Discussion of that Point which was started some Years since, Whether Milton 's Paradise Lost may be called an Heroick Poem? Those who will not give it that Title, may call it (if they please) a Divine Poem. It will be sufficient to its Perfection, if it has in it all the Beauties of the highest kind of Poetry; and as far those who allege it is not an Heroick Poem, they advance no more to the Diminution of it, than if they should say Adam is not Aeneas, nor Eve Helen.

1 shall therefore examine it by the Rules of Epic Poetry, and see whether it falls short of the Iliad or Aneid, in the Beauties which are essential to that kind of writing. The first Thing to be considered in an Epic Poem, is the Fable, which is perfect or irmperfect, according as the Action which it relates is more or less s. This Action should have three Qualifications in it. First. It should be but one Action. Secondly, it should be an enthe Action; and Thirdly, it should be a great Action. To consider the Action of the Iliad. Aeneid. and Paradise Lost in these three several lights. Homer to preserve the Unity of his Action hastens into the midst of things, as Horace has observed. Had he gone up to Leda 's egg, or begun much later. even at the Rape of Helen, or the Investing of Troy, it is

manifest that the Story of the Poem would have been a Series of several Actions. He therefore opens his Poem with the Discord of his Princes, and with great Art interweaves in the several succeeding parts of it, an account of every thing material which relates to them, and had passed before that fatal Dissention. After the same manner Aeneas makes his first appearance in the Tyrrhene Seas, and within sight of Italy, because the Action proposed to be celebrated was that of his Settling himself in Latium. But because it was necessary for the Reader to know what had happened to him in the taking of Troy, and in the preceding parts of his Voyage, Virgil makes his Hero relate it by way of Episode in the second and third Books of the Aeneid. The Contents of both which Books come before those of the first Book in the Thread of the Story, the' for preserving of this Unity of Action, they follow them in the Disposition of the Poem. Milton, in Imitation of these two great Poets, opens his Paradise Lost with an Infernal Council plotting the Fall of Man, which is the Action he proposed to celebrate; and as for those great Actions, which preceded in point of time, the Battle of the Angels, and the Creation of the World, (which would have enthely destroyed the Unity of his Principal Action, had he related them in the same Order that they happened) he cast them into the fifth, sixth and seventh Books, by way of Episode to this noble Poem.

Arisrotle himself allows, that Homer has nothing to boast of as to the Unity of his Fable, the' at the same time that great Critick and Philosopher endeavours to palliate this Imperfection in the Greek Poet, by imputing it in some Measure to the very Nature of an Epic Poem. Some have been of Opinion, that the Aeneid labours also in this particular, and has Episodes which may be looked upon as Excrescencies rather than as Parts of the Action On the contrary, the Poem which we have now under our Consideration, hath no other Episodes than such as naturally arise from the Subject, and yet is filled with such a multitude of astonishing Incidents, that it gives us at the same time a Pleasure of the greatest Variety, and of the greatest Simplicity; uniform in its Nature, though diversified in the Execution.

I must observe also, that as Virgil in the Poem which was designed to celebrate the Original of the Roman Empire, has described the Birth of its great Rival, the Carthaginian Commonwealth. Milton with the like Art in his Poem on the Fall of Man, has related the Fall of those Angels who are his professed Enemies. Besides the many other Beauties in such all Episode, it's running Parallel with the great Action of the Poem, hinders it from breaking the Unity so much as another Episode would have done, that had not so great an Affinity with the principal Subject. In short, this is the same kind of Beauty which the Criticks admire in the The Spanish Fryar, or the Double Discovery, where the two different Plots look like Counterparts and Copies of one another.

The second Qualification required in the Action of an Epic Poem is, that it should be an entire Action. An Action is entire when it is compleat in all its Parts; or as Aristotle describes it, when it consists of a Beginning, a Middle, and

The Spectator, Number 267

THERE is nothing in Nature so irksome as general Discourses, especially when they turn chiefly upon Words. For this Reason I shall wave the Discussion of that Point which was started some Years since, Whether Milton 's Paradise Lost may be called an Heroick Poem? Those who will not give it that Title, may call it (if they please) a Divine Poem. It will be sufficient to its Perfection, if it has in it all the Beauties of the highest kind of Poetry; and as far those who allege it is not an Heroick Poem, they advance no more to the Diminution of it, than if they should say Adam is not Aeneas, nor Eve Helen.

1 shall therefore examine it by the Rules of Epic Poetry, and see whether it falls short of the Iliad or Aneid, in the Beauties which are essential to that kind of writing. The first Thing to be considered in an Epic Poem, is the Fable, which is perfect or irmperfect, according as the Action which it relates is more or less s. This Action should have three Qualifications in it. First. It should be but one Action. Secondly, it should be an enthe Action; and Thirdly, it should be a great Action. To consider the Action of the Iliad. Aeneid. and Paradise Lost in these three several lights. Homer to preserve the Unity of his Action hastens into the midst of things, as Horace has observed. Had he gone up to Leda 's egg, or begun much later. even at the Rape of Helen, or the Investing of Troy, it is

manifest that the Story of the Poem would have been a Series of several Actions. He therefore opens his Poem with the Discord of his Princes, and with great Art interweaves in the several succeeding parts of it, an account of every thing material which relates to them, and had passed before that fatal Dissention. After the same manner Aeneas makes his first appearance in the Tyrrhene Seas, and within sight of Italy, because the Action proposed to be celebrated was that of his Settling himself in Latium. But because it was necessary for the Reader to know what had happened to him in the taking of Troy, and in the preceding parts of his Voyage, Virgil makes his Hero relate it by way of Episode in the second and third Books of the Aeneid. The Contents of both which Books come before those of the first Book in the Thread of the Story, the' for preserving of this Unity of Action, they follow them in the Disposition of the Poem. Milton, in Imitation of these two great Poets, opens his Paradise Lost with an Infernal Council plotting the Fall of Man, which is the Action he proposed to celebrate; and as for those great Actions, which preceded in point of time, the Battle of the Angels, and the Creation of the World, (which would have enthely destroyed the Unity of his Principal Action, had he related them in the same Order that they happened) he cast them into the fifth, sixth and seventh Books, by way of Episode to this noble Poem.

Arisrotle himself allows, that Homer has nothing to boast of as to the Unity of his Fable, the' at the same time that great Critick and Philosopher endeavours to palliate this Imperfection in the Greek Poet, by imputing it in some Measure to the very Nature of an Epic Poem. Some have been of Opinion, that the Aeneid labours also in this particular, and has Episodes which may be looked upon as Excrescencies rather than as Parts of the Action On the contrary, the Poem which we have now under our Consideration, hath no other Episodes than such as naturally arise from the Subject, and yet is filled with such a multitude of astonishing Incidents, that it gives us at the same time a Pleasure of the greatest Variety, and of the greatest Simplicity; uniform in its Nature, though diversified in the Execution.

I must observe also, that as Virgil in the Poem which was designed to celebrate the Original of the Roman Empire, has described the Birth of its great Rival, the Carthaginian Commonwealth. Milton with the like Art in his Poem on the Fall of Man, has related the Fall of those Angels who are his professed Enemies. Besides the many other Beauties in such all Episode, it's running Parallel with the great Action of the Poem, hinders it from breaking the Unity so much as another Episode would have done, that had not so great an Affinity with the principal Subject. In short, this is the same kind of Beauty which the Criticks admire in the The Spanish Fryar, or the Double Discovery, where the two different Plots look like Counterparts and Copies of one another.

The second Qualification required in the Action of an Epic Poem is, that it should be an entire Action. An Action is entire when it is compleat in all its Parts; or as Aristotle describes it, when it consists of a Beginning, a Middle, and

SparkNotes Search Results: Paradise lost

95304 Results for Paradise lost

. From a general summary to chapter summaries to explanations of famous quotes, the SparkNotes ParadiseLost Study Guide has everything you need to ace quizzes, tests, and essays. .

. Baudelaire Frost’s Early Poems Robert Frost Hopkins’s Poetry Gerard Manley Hopkins The Iliad Homer Inferno Dante Alighieri Keats’s Odes John Keats Margaret Atwood’s Poetry Margaret Atwood The Odyssey Homer Paradise.

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.paradise that existed before—a powerful symbol of innate human evil disrupting childhood innocence. Motifs Motifs are recurring structures, contrasts, and literary devices that can help to develop and inform the .

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. A suggested list of literary criticism on John Milton's ParadiseLost. The listed critical essays and books will be invaluable for writing essays and papers on ParadiseLost.

. solace in Ardenne and manage to heal the wounds inflicted on them by vengeful dukes and unfair customs, the green world they encounter is not a paradise. peopled as it is with the likes of Silvius and Audrey .

. A list of important facts about John Milton's ParadiseLost. including setting, climax, protagonists, and antagonists. .

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Paradise Sample Essay Outlines

Paradise Paradise Sample Essay Outlines

Topic #1
Compare the hardships that beset the original founders of Haven with the hardships and stresses of the citizens of Ruby.

Outline
I. Thesis Statement: The people who founded Haven had to endure different hardships and were under different stresses than the citizens of Ruby .
A. The founders of Haven had particular stresses and hardships.
B. The founders of Ruby had particular stresses and hardships.

II. The founders of Haven worked together.
A. They left the same homes, together, for similar reasons.
B. They were under the same stresses, like survival.
C. They were already in the same families.
D. They had to pool their resources in order to make it through the lean times.

III. The citizens of Ruby have not been working together.
A. They compete with one another.
B. They have religious differences.
C. There are more people in total, and larger groups are always harder to manage.
D. They do not always wish each other well.

IV. The past weighs on the current population of Ruby.
A. The Morgan brothers are constantly concerned with what their ancestors would think.
B. Many people are unwilling to talk about their family’s history.
C. New ideas are suspect, and people have little curiosity about the outside world.
D. The pressures of the past hamper people’s current freedom.

(The entire section is 585 words.)

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Paradise Homework Help Questions One of the themes in Paradise by Toni Morrison relates to the title of the novel, a novel about different perspectives of what constitutes safety and safe harbor. For one group of people, safety.
  • Reverend Misner is young compared to many of the authority figures in the town, and as such some people don't fully trust him. Despite the authority and respect conferred on him by his office.
  • The novel explores sanity and insanity as being products of society and whether or not people fit into society and are able to express themselves or not within the somewhat narrow confines of.
  • The main reason the men of Ruby make scapegoats of the women in the convent is that they simply fear what they do not understand. Throughout time humans have feared what they have not understood.
  • Racism is born out of fear. Fear of the unknown and fear of not having power. When the people of Ruby feel that their shared existence is threatened, and in their desperation to find some kind.

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